Vicente Aleixandre( Spanish poet, Nobel Prize for Literature, 1977)
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Biography Vicente Aleixandre
- December 14, 1984
Spanish poet Vicente Aleixandre-and-Merlot was born in Seville in the family Cirilo Aleixandre Ballester, engineer Andalusian railroad, Merlot and Elvira Garcia de Pruneda, the daughter of the local military Superintendent. A. was the eldest child in the family: his older sister died at an early age, and younger sister, Conchita, was born in 1899. When Vicente was still a little boy, his father moved to Malaga, where A. grew up on a picturesque, sun-drenched Mediterranean coast, where the images imprinted in his poetry. Visiting local primary school, he became acquainted with fairy tales of Hans Christian Andersen and the Brothers Grimm.
After the family in 1909. moved to Madrid, A. enrolled in the 'Colegio Tereziano', a secular institution, which he graduated in 1913. the degree bachillerato, relevant diploma from a higher education institution. As a student, a. on the advice of his grandfather on his mother's side all day sitting in the library, where he became acquainted with the works of Conan Doyle and Dostoevsky, with the 'Iliad' of Homer and the plays of Friedrich Schiller.
At the University of Madrid, where A. enrolled in 1914, he studied law and attended seminars on Spanish literature. During summer vacations in the province of Avila (1917) A. met with Damaso Alonso (later president of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Spain), who introduced him to the works of Nicaraguan modernist poet Ruben Dario, and this aroused his interest in poetry.
. After graduation and receiving a law degree and economics A
. became an assistant professor at the Madrid school, commercial business. Two years later he gets a job in the management of Andalusian railroad and writes articles on economic affairs of the railway. All this time A. writes poetry, but for several years to anyone they do not show it.
In 1922, Mr.. poet ill infectious arthritis, one of the many diseases that have made him semi-invalid for the rest of life. After Meanwhile as he was diagnosed with tuberculosis of the kidneys, he was in 1925. left the service in the railway company and settled in his father's house near Madrid, where over the next two years devoted himself entirely to literary work. During this time he wrote poems, published in 1928. in the collection 'district' ( 'Ambito'). They reflected his intimate experience, as well as the fear of death that engulfed him during his illness. Written in the traditional ballad form, poetry is a high sensuality.
Learning that A. wrote, friends advised him to show his literary experiments in the journal Revista de Occidente '(' Revista de Occidente '), where they were first published his poems (1926). In May 1927. A. family moved to the northern suburb of Madrid on a small villa, where he conducts his life.
In the same 1927. observed tercentenary of the death of the great Spanish poet Luis de Gongora-and-Argote. A group of young writers Surrealists, which included Alexander, Jorge Guillen, Damaso Alonso, Rafael Alberti, Luis Sernuda, Federico Garcц-a Lorca and others, have declared themselves followers of Gongora and were called 'Generation 1927'.
. By this time, and relates the appearance of 'The parishes'
. A. begins to read the works of Sigmund Freud, who used to interpret the tested them during the illness of pathological visions. The influence of surrealism and Freudian seen in 'The Passion of the earth' ( 'Pasion de la tierra'), where the ballad form is giving way to rhythmic prose and verse, white at the first sight of incoherent images. Creating 'The Passion of the land' refers to the 1928 ... 1929. But this work was published only in 1935. Meanwhile A. wrote 'Sword exactly lips' (' Espadas como labios. '1932), as well as a collection of erotic poetry "Destruction or Love' ( 'La destruccion of elamor', 1933). Over the last book, which many consider his best work, he received in 1933. National Prize for Literature.
When in 1936. the Spanish Civil War, for many of the 'Generation 1927' came the hard times. Most members of the group left the country, Garcia Lorca was executed by Franco. Due to illness a. forced to remain in Spain, although his house, who was near the battle area near Madrid, at the end of the war destroyed. However, after the death of his father in 1940. A. sister managed to restore the house. Although at this time a poet was prohibited, and. continued his literary career. 'In the early postwar years, my literary life was not easy' - he recalled.
. 'One world' ( 'Mundo a solas'), . written on the eve of the Civil War, . but published only in 1950, . served as a prelude to the 'Shadows of Heaven' ( 'Sombra del paraiso', . 1944) - poetic utopia of the kingdom of happiness and beauty, . intuited man, . which stands on the verge of death,
. 'The history of the heart' ( 'Historia del corazon', 1954) marks a shift from the pessimism characteristic of the early works of the poet, to the assertion of humanism and spirituality. In the words of the interpreter of the poet Lewis Hyde, A. 'is one of the few poets of the pessimists, who were able to overcome itself and become something more than the darkness'. Subsequent collections of poetry A. include 'In the power of vanity' ( 'En un vasto dominio', 1962), 'Verses on the end' ( 'Poemas de la consumacion', 1968) and 'Dialogues about knowledge' ( 'Dialogos del conocimiento', 1974). In 1958, Mr.. Therefore the products 'Meetings' ( 'Los Encuentros'), a book of memoirs, where with great love wrote about his fellow writers.
In 1977. A. received the Nobel Prize for Literature "for his outstanding poetry, . which reflects the person's position in space and modern society and at the same time represents an impressive indication of the revival of traditions of Spanish poetry in the period between the world wars',
. 'He never accepted the Franco regime, . - Said when giving the award, Karl Ragnar Gierow, . representative of the Swedish Academy, . - He went his own way, his work is a delicate, . but adamantly, . it is - an inexhaustible source of spiritual life of Spain ',
. Due to illness a. unable to personally attend the award ceremony and was represented by his friend Justo Jorge PadrцЁn, a young Spanish poet and translator of A. to Swedish. Shortly after receiving the Nobel Prize, King Juan Carlos of Spain paid a. visit and awarded him the Grand Cross of the Order of Charles III.
Having lived all his life a bachelor, A. died in Madrid on December 14, 1984, Mr.. the age of 86.
Despite the fact that not all products A. translated into English, his work has received positive response and outside Spain. 'It was a poet of great intellectual power and spiritual depth and courage - Lewis Hyde wrote, - it sunk in the deepest depths of the soul, whence drew, to the delight of us all. living life '.