Miguel Asturias( Guatemalan novelist, poet and journalist, Nobel Prize for Literature, 1967)
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Biography Miguel Asturias
October 19, 1899, Mr.. - June 9, 1974
Miguel Angel Asturias, Guatemalan writer, poet and journalist, was born in g. Guatemala. He was the eldest of two sons of Judge Ernesto Asturias and teacher Maria (Rosales) Asturias. Due to disagreement with the policies of the Guatemalan dictator Estrada Cabrera, who came to power in 1898, Miguel's parents lost their jobs, and family Asturias was forced to move to r. Salam relatives. In the capital of Asturias returned only in 1907
As a student of the Guatemalan University of San Carlos, A. participated in the uprising against Cabrera (1920), which led to the fall of the dictatorial regime. Shortly thereafter, the future writer contributed to the establishment of the National University of Guatemala, a free evening school for workers, where he taught and enthusiastic teachers. In 1923, Mr.. A. received a degree in jurisprudence at the University of San Carlos for the work 'The social problems of the Indians', the award-winning Gц¦lvez.
. Although Cabrera was overthrown, the political atmosphere in Guatemala remained very tense: the various military factions did not stop the struggle for power
. After one of Miguel's friends for expressing their political views, was severely beaten, the parents of A., fearing for his son, sent him to continue his education in Europe. Initially A. going to study economics in London, but was in Paris at the Sorbonne, where a great influence on him had George Raine, an expert on mythology and culture of the Maya. A. studied with Raino for five years and during this time translated into Spanish the language of his major works. Coming under the influence of the French Surrealists, whose worldview seemed A. closer Latin American reality than the traditional Western rationalism, he himself begins at this time to write poetry and prose.
While in Europe,. wrote 'The Legends of Guatemala' ( 'Leyendos de Guatemala') - a poetic interpretation of Maya mythology. The book was published in Madrid in 1930, and in 1932. won Silla Monsegura. At the same time was written first novel, A. 'Sir, the President' ( 'El Senor Presidente'), a dark surreal story of a Latin American dictatorship, inspired by memories of the mode Cabrera. For political reasons, this novel was published only in 1946, and then in Mexico, at the expense of the author.
In 1928, Mr.. A. going to Guatemala and to Cuba to lecture, which in the same year were published under the title 'Creating a new life' ( 'La Arquitectura de la Vida Nueva'). Five years later, returned to live in Guatemala, which at that time was in power the regime of dictator Jorge Ubico. A. wrote poetry, worked as a journalist - in particular, for radio 'Aerial newspaper'. When instead of the deposed Ubico country in 1944. headed by Juan Jose Arevalo, president of a democratic warehouse,. entered the diplomatic service, goes the cultural attache in Mexico and Argentina, and then as ambassador to El Salvador. Working in Buenos Aires, A. wrote the novel 'maize people' ( 'Hombres de Maiz', 1946), which some critics consider his best work. In this semi-fantastic, written in rhythmic prose book, A. depicts the magical world of the Maya and opposes their values the values of Latin culture media, against which the Indians revolted.
. For 'corn people' followed by three of the novel, sometimes called 'Banana trilogy': 'Hurricane' ( 'Viento Fuerte', 1950), 'Green Pope' ( 'El Papa Verde', 1954) and 'Eyes of the buried' ( 'Los Qjos de los Enterrados', 1960)
. In all three novels sounds a protest against violence and lawlessness being perpetrated in Central America, United States. According to many critics,. sacrificed art for politics. In response to this accusation in an interview a. said: 'I believe that the function of our literature has always been to narrate the suffering of the people. I think that the literature of this type can not be pure literature, enjoyable and focused only on the beautiful '.
When the American protege, Colonel Castillo Armas in 1954. seized power in Arevalo's successor, Colonel Jacobo Arbenz, A. was stripped of his citizenship and deported to South America. Collected short stories 'Weekend in Guatemala' ( 'Week-end in Guatemala'), on the treacherous seizure of power Armas, was published in Buenos Aires in 1956. First A. lives in Chile, together with the poet Pablo Neruda, and later - in Buenos Aires, where he works correspondent Venezuelan newspaper 'Nacional' ( 'Nacional'), as well as a consultant in the Argentine publishing. At this time the writer marries Argentine Blanca Mora-and-Aruaho, who bore him two children. The first wife was writer Clemencia Amado.
In 1962. political situation in Argentina has forced a re -. emigrate, and he went to Italy. In Genoa written two historical novel about the collision of Indian and European (Catholic) cultures: 'Mulatto as mulatto' ( 'Mulata de tal', 1963) and 'bad thief' ( 'Maladron', 1969). The cycle of poems from the life of the Mayas 'Eve celebration of the spring light' ( 'Clarivigilia primaveral') - probably the best known poem writer - was published in 1965. In 1966, when A. was awarded the Lenin Prize "for peace between peoples', the new president of Guatemala, Julio CцLsar MцLndez Montenegro appointed him ambassador to France.
. 'For a bright creative achievement, which is based on interest in the customs and traditions of the Indians of Latin America', A
. received in 1967. Nobel Prize in literature. Accepting this award, A. said: 'In my books, and will continue to be voices of peoples, their myths and beliefs at the same time, I'll try to comprehend the problem of national consciousness in Latin America'. In his Nobel lecture, a brief. showed what is the difference between the European literary tradition and the literature, which is formed in Latin America. "Our novels seem to be Europeans, deprived of logic and common sense. However, they fear not because we want to frighten the reader. They are afraid because we come to the terrible things' - he explained.
In 1970. A. left his diplomatic post and devoted himself entirely to literature. Until Death (the writer died in Madrid on June 9, 1974), he published several books, including collections of essays and short stories.
As the critic and biographer A. Richard Kallan, 'modern critic judge him not by traditional standards, and consistent with the purpose that he has set itself: to show, as in Guatemala and in other countries (third world) coexist different social orders'. According to Callan, 'A work. marks the maturity of the Latin American novel '.