BAC Pearl( American writer, Nobel Prize for Literature, 1938)
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Biography BAC Pearl
June 26, 1892, Mr.. - March 6, 1973
American author Pearl Comfort (Saydenstriker) Buck was the daughter of Presbyterian missionaries in China, only one of six children born in the United States, Mr.. Hillsboro (West Virginia). Her father, Absalom Saydenstriker was stern, reserved man, a scientist who spent many years translating the Bible from Greek to Chinese. Her mother, nee Caroline Stalting was very educated, cultured woman, a young man traveled a lot and very who loved literature.
The parents returned to China when Pearl was still a child, and settled in g. Chinkyan, preferring to live among the Chinese, but not in those parts of the country, which were mainly occupied by foreigners. As a result, the girl learned to speak Chinese before in English. In addition, its so well received by Chinese counterparts that up to nine years, she did not feel a foreigner in China. When the 'Boxer Rebellion' and the Empress ordered to execute all white, Saydenstrikery fled to Shanghai, but after the rebellion was suppressed, again returned to Chinkyan.
. Initially, the formation of Pearl by her mother and mentor-Chinese, who was a Confucian scholar
. The 15-year old girl was sent to boarding school in Shanghai. In 1910,. She returned to the United States and entered the Randolph-Mansonsky women's college in Virginia, where he studied psychology and received two literary awards. After graduating from college in 1914. She returned to China to work teaching at a Presbyterian mission, and three years later married John Lossinga Baca, a specialist in agriculture, which also served as a missionary in China. Young couple settled in one of the northern villages, where B. continues to teach, as well as acting as an interpreter for her husband while traveling in the countryside. In 1921, Mr.. they have a daughter, Carol, and a few months, Pearl's mother died, and the future novelist decides to write her biography. By this time the family B. moved to Nanjing, where the local university, John teaches agricultural science, and Pearl - English and American literature.
Write B. beginning in childhood, her first literary efforts appeared in a children's annex to the English-language newspaper "Shanghai Mercury, '(' Shanghai Mercury '). Finished a biography of the mother, which was published much later, B. taken as a novel, but in the early 20-ies. the 'Atlantic Monthly' ( 'Atlantic Monthly') and other American magazines published its article on China.
. Returning to the year in the United States, wife of Buck enrolled in graduate school at Cornell University, where Pearl receives degree Master of Arts in Literature
. By this time the wife of Buck learn from doctors that their daughter is mentally retarded, and decide to adopt another girl, Janice.
When the couple returned to tank in 1927. in China, the country's raging civil war. House of Nanking was looted, and the lost manuscript of the first novel B. In the same year the family B. was evacuated - first in Shanghai and then in Japan. By this time B. completed her second novel 'East Wind, West Wind' ( 'East Wind: West Wind'), which she started writing on the boat, which traveled from the United States to China, which was published in 1930. 'East wind ...' - This is quite a traditional affair, which addresses the problem of 'fathers and children'. The novel is set in China at the turn of the century, his heroes - ordinary Chinese whose lives B. she knew from early childhood. While the original novel was rejected by publishers on the grounds that the reading public is hardly arise interest in life in China, 'East wind ...' a short time through three editions. Then, in 1931, appeared novel 'Earth' ( 'The Good Earth'), for which B. was awarded the Pulitzer Prize. This book, which is still considered the best product of AB, tells of a poor peasant family trying to achieve prosperity and create something like a family dynasty. The novel is distinguished by a simple style that is characteristic of all creative B. and compare the opinion of one critic, with the biblical. 'Land' quickly became a bestseller, which has been called 'a parable of human life'. This novel goes back to the tradition of Chinese folk literature, the cyclic form which reflects the belief in the continuity of life and is designed for the entertainment of ordinary people. All three novels were in 1935. published in one volume under the title 'House of the earth' ( 'The House of Earth').
In these early years of his literary activity B. wrote a lot: a novel 'Mother' ( 'Mother', . 1934), . biography mother 'Exile' ( 'The Exile', . 1936) and father 'Fighting Angel' ( 'Fighting Angel', . 1936), . 'Proud Heart' ( 'The Proud Heart'), . first book, . action which is happening in America, . two-volume translation of classical Chinese novel "Shui-hu Huang ', . published in 1933,
. and named 'All men are brothers' ( 'All Men Are Brothers').
In 1938. B. becomes the first American writer, won the Nobel Prize for Literature 'for the multi-faceted, truly an epic description of the life of Chinese peasants and for biographical masterpieces'. In his welcoming speech, the representative of the Swedish Academy Per Halstrem summarized topics most important works of B., . that, . as he put, . 'pave the way for human understanding in spite of any racial barriers and allow to study universal ideals, ,
. 'This award will inspire not only me but all American writers, "said B
. when giving the award. - Awarding the Nobel Prize women in our country is of paramount importance '. B. also expressed deep appreciation to the Chinese people, whose life for many years been closely linked to its own.
Hammer B. Nobel led to a lively controversy among critics, some of whom have argued that creativity B., writer, undoubtedly, a talented and interesting enough scale for such a prize. Nevertheless, the book B. continued to enjoy enormous popularity, the creative activity of the writer has not dried up. For forty years it was written eighty works: novels, biography, autobiography, radio plays, books for children.
. However, the peak of her creativity remained 'Land', after receiving the Nobel Prize for her reputation began to gradually decline, conspicuous characteristic of her books didacticism and sentimentality
. According to some critics, B. deserves more attention as a humanist, champion of the 'one world', than as an artist. Disputes about her work continued: such critics. as Kenneth Tyne, spoke on her behalf, commended the level of her books, while others, such as George Steiner, as convincingly argued otherwise.
In 1935. B. divorced her first husband and married her publisher Richard Walsh, with whom they have several children upbringing. The couple were active members of the Association of East-West relations in cultural and charitable organizations 'Wellcome House', providing material assistance to all those who wanted to adopt children the Asian-American. In the writer Pearl S. Buck Foundation deducted savings, marched to various charitable and educational purposes.
B. died at the age of eighty years in Danby (Vermont), survived Walsh almost thirteen years. In addition to the Nobel Prize, . writer was awarded the Medal of William Dean Howells from the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1935), . as well as numerous humanitarian awards, . honorary degrees from Yale University, . West Virginia University, . Howard University,
. Philadelphia Women's Medical College and other higher education institutions. In 1951, Mr.. B. was elected a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.