April 13, 1906, Mr.. - December 22, 1989 Samuel
, Irish playwright, novelist and poet, was born in Dublin, he was the youngest son of William Beckett
, a surveyor, and his wife Mary, nee Mae, the daughter of wealthy parents from County Kildare. Get home, the Protestant upbringing, Samuel
came first in the private charter schools, and then in boarding Erlsfortsky. From 1920 to 1923. Samuel
goes to Portora-Royel School in Northern Ireland, which enjoys cricket, rugby, boxing and swimming.
In Dublin's Trinity College B. learning languages and reading of Luigi Pirandello, and Sean O'Casey. Received in 1927. Bachelor of Arts degree and graduated with honors, he spent years teaching in Belfast, and then goes to Paris, where he works as a teacher of English at the Ecole normal syuperer and where he met James Joyce, who becomes his closest friend.
. In Paris B
. wrote a critical monologue 'Proust' ( 'Proust', 1931) and 'Bludoskop' ( 'Whoroscope', 1930), a dramatic allegory - a monologue Rene Descartes, the philosopher, whose writings B. studies at this time. At the end of 1930. B. returned to Trinity College, where in 1931. received master of arts degree and then taught for a year French. Like Joyce, B. felt that his creativity is suppressed by the fact that he called "the oppression of Irish life ', and soon decided to permanently move abroad. After his father died of a heart attack in 1933. B. received an annuity and settled in London, where he underwent psychoanalysis. Published a collection of short stories 'More pricks than kicks' ( 'More Kicks Than Pricks', 1934), the writer begins work on his novel 'Murphy' ( 'Murphy'), which will be issued in 1938. After living for about a year in London, B. returns to Paris. While 'Murphy' and had no commercial success, created a favorable opinion of Joyce B. reputation as a serious writer.
Around the same time, B. acquainted with Susanna Deshvo-Dyumsnil, where married in 1961. In 1939, Mr.. B. came to Ireland to visit her mother, but after learning about the beginning of World War II, he returned to Paris where, together with Deshvo-Dyumsnil actively participated in the resistance movement. In 1942, barely avoiding arrest, they fled from the Gestapo in Roussillon in the south of France. Over the next two years B. worked as a laborer and wrote the novel 'Watt' - the last of them written in English. Name of the novel and the name of the protagonist is a play of words: 'Watt' - a change to the English 'What' ( 'what'); theme of the novel - a vain attempt to Watt, the existence of a rational in an irrational world.
. After World War II B
. briefly worked in the Irish Red Cross in Paris. For anti-fascist activity writer received the Military Cross and a medal for participation in the Resistance against the French government. Since then, B. begins to write in French: a novel 'Mercier and Camiers' (' Mercier et Camier ', 1970), as well as the trilogy' Molloy '(' Molloy ', 1951),' Malon die '(' Malon meurt ', 1951),' unnamed '(' L'lnnommable ', 1953).
. Although the trilogy and plays an important role in the creation of BI, the international recognition of the writer brought the play 'Waiting for Godot' ( 'En Attendant Godot'), written in 1949
. and published in English in 1954. Now B. considered the leading playwright of the theater of the absurd. The first staging in Paris has, in close collaboration with the author, director Roger Blain. 'Waiting for Godot' - the play static, the events in it are like a circle: the second act repeats the first with only minor changes. The two main protagonists, tramps, Vladimir and Estragon, waiting for some mysterious Godot, who should come and do away with boredom and neglect, from which they suffer; Godot, however, did not appear. The play involved two characters - Pozzo and Lucca. To aggravate the suffocating atmosphere of pessimism B. inserted into the play elements of musical comedy and a few lyrical passages. 'This piece caused me to revise the laws on which the first was based drama, - wrote the English critic Kenneth Tyne. and translated B. into English in 1958, is even more static and hermetic than 'Waiting for Godot'. The four characters: a blind, paralyzed Hamm, his servant, and the parents sitting in an empty room, and vainly waiting for the end of the world. Hamm, says B., - 'is the king in a chess game, loser from the start'. In the chess game ends when the king put mat, but in the play 'Endgame', as, indeed, and 'Waiting for Godot', no foul, there is only a stalemate.
The next play, 'The last tape Krapp' ( 'Krapp's Last Tape', 1959), B. wrote in English. The only actor, aged Krapp, holds its last days, listening to tapes of his own monologues, three decades ago. Although he intends to write to tape his final monologue, the play ends in silence. In this play, a kind of dialogue of youth and old age, once again keynote theme of futility and vanity of life. The London premiere of 'Tapes Krapp' held in 1958, and New York - staged by Alan Schneider - in 1960. English critic A. Alvarez saw in this work 'a new direction in the work of B.'. Unlike the earlier plays, Alvarez wrote, 'subject here is not depression, grief. With extraordinary capacity and expressiveness in the play shows what is lost '.
Completing work on several essays and radio plays, B. wrote 'Happy Days' ( 'Happy Days', 1961). In this two-act play, rife with irony, . set in the New York theater 'Cherry Lane' in 1961, . deduced some Winnie, buried in the ground to the waist, . She is optimistic, . when the bell rang, . to be able to sleep before death.,
. In 60-ies
. B. continues to write for theater, radio and television. In 1969. writer awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature 'for the set of innovative works in prose and drama, in which the tragedy of modern man becomes his triumph'. In his speech, the representative of the Swedish Academy, Karl Ragnar Gierow noted that the deep pessimism B. Yet 'contains such a love for humanity, which only grows deeper into the abyss of filth and despair, and when despair seems limitless, it turns out that compassion has no boundaries'
. Closed B., agreeing to accept the Nobel Prize with the condition that he would not attend the ceremony, retired in Tunisia, to avoid publicity and fuss
. Instead, the prize was awarded to his French publisher Jerome Lindon.
During the next 10 years, B. wrote one-act plays, some of which he staged in London and German theaters. His 70 th anniversary was marked by a number of productions in London's 'Royal Court-tietre'. In 1978. writer published 'Verse' ( 'Mirlitonnades'), a collection of short poems, followed by the story of 'Company' ( 'Company'), revised a year later for performances on BBC News, as well as on stage in London and New York theater. Play 'Down with all the strange' ( 'All Strange Away', 1979) begins with the words: 'Imagination dead. Imagine! "
Although the B. kept about his work is almost complete silence, he devoted countless books, articles, reviews and monographs. In 1971, claiming that is not going to 'neither help nor hinder', B. enabled Deirdre Bair, an American graduate student, to begin work on his biography, whose purpose was, according to Baer, 'focus on the inner world of BI, to understand what is behind each of his works'.
. Some critics point to the pessimism B
. 'B. excites us in the world of the Void - wrote French critic Maurice must be - where nothing moves the hollow men '. Many critics, such as Englishman Richard Raud, pay attention to language B. 'I do not think - wrote Raud - that someone from contemporary writers are so splendidly fluent in English (and French) language, as B.'. According to the American literary critic Sanford Sternlihta, 'B. is the most influential of contemporary playwrights, founding figure in modern drama. "