genus. June 10, 1915
American novelist Saul Bellow
(real name: Solomon Bellows
) was born in Lachine, a suburb of Montreal (Quebec). He was the youngest of four children of Abram Bellows
and Lisa (Gordon) Bellows
, Jews from Russia who emigrated to Canada from St. Petersburg in 1913. In childhood, which was 'partly abroad, partly by the Polish ghettos, partly Middle Ages', the boy was reading Shakespeare and the writers of the XIX century., Learned to speak fluent in four languages, was educated in the traditions of the Old Testament. His father, engaged in the resale of liquor smugglers, after the family moved to Chicago in 1924. became a trader of coal.
As a result, B. of the orthodox lashinskogo 'shtetl' becomes a resident of the huge capital city. 'I grew up in Chicago and consider myself a born Chicagoans' - he wrote later. The family settled in Humboldt Park, among people who spoke different languages, where B. and his school friends of Thul-High cheekbones collected every week in a charity school at the mission, showing each other their compositions. 'I and my peers were literally obsessed with the literature', - recalls B. After high school B. in 1933. goes to the University of Chicago, but the 'stifling atmosphere' oppresses him, and two years later the young man is sent to the University of North Uestern, where he studied anthropology under the direction of Melville J. Hershkowitz and in 1937. received a bachelor's degree in sociology and anthropology. After studying several months in the graduate school of the University of Wisconsin, B. returned to Chicago and begins to write, while he was working as a clerk in the Federal Working Committee, a teacher at the Pedagogical Institute Pestalozzi - Frobla, editor of the Encyclopedia Britannica. During the Second World War he served in the Marines and finished his first novel 'The man between heaven and earth' ( 'Dangling Man'), published in 1944. and written in the form of a diary. The hero of the novel, the recruit, awaiting a summons to the army - a man to life is not adapted, without any status in society. The American critic Edmund Wilson praised the 'rights between heaven and earth', seeing in it 'one of the most truthful evidence of the mood of a generation that grew up during the Great Depression and World War II'.
From 1946 to 1948. B. teaches at the University of Minnesota, wrote essays, short stories and short story 'Victim' ( 'The Victim', 1947), a discussion of domestic and religious troubles of the New York journalist. While the story and did not get that resonance, which had its first major novel, B. Gugtenheyma was awarded a scholarship that allowed him, from 1948 to 1949. work on the next novel, while living in Paris and Rome. The third novel, the writer, 'The Adventures of Augie March' ( 'The Adventures of Augie March', 1953), was awarded the National Prize for Literature and is recognized as the best book of the year. The novel describes the adventures of a very colorful adventure, beginning with his childhood in Chicago and ending with adulthood, when he trades on the black market in postwar Europe. 'Augie March' marks the first really big success writer. Avoiding the traditional, time-calibrated narration, B. resort to such methods, . as a dispute between the protagonist and his inner voice, . lengthy philosophical monologues, . as well as lively conversation between all kinds of people, . who have to struggle for existence in an atmosphere of colorfully described the life of a big city,
. 'A remarkable finding is the author's lively, pretentious language Ogi', - notes the American literary critic Alfred Kazin. 'Striking scintillating wit and emotional scale that had not previously been characterized by B.', - says the American poet John Berryman.
In 50-ies. B. teaches English, first at Princeton University and then at Bard kollezhde and wrote 'Carpe Diem' ( 'Seize the Day', 1956) - a collection of three novellas, one-act plays and novels, which gave its name to the entire book. The hero of Tommy Uilhelm, supposing that easily acquired wealth will help him get out of 'dreary and gray everyday life', is trying to 'catch the moment' and invests in risky. Bankrupt, Uilhelm goes to the funeral, where the cries of the realization that 'all throwing' end is not reassuring, and forgetfulness. In an article published in The New York Times Review beech '(' New York Times Book Review '), Kazin called the story B. 'exceptionally touching book', and the English writer VS. Pritchet - 'a little dark masterpiece'. Three years later, B. produces novel 'Henderson, lord of the rain' ( 'Henderson the Rain King'), telling about the millionaire, who went to Africa, so that, subsequently identified as B. himself, 'cured of the fear of death'.
. Disappointed with the New York literary life, caste and politicized, B
. returned to Chicago in the 'real America', where from 1962. live permanently. Soon the writer gets a job at University of Chicago, a member of the interdepartmental commission on Social Thought. Following the release of 'Duke' ( 'Herzog', 1964) B. again receives national award for best book of the year and became the first American to be awarded the French international literary prize. The hero of this novel, a university professor, is trying to overcome alienation from himself and from society. A brilliant scholar, an expert on the problems and ulcers of modern society, Moses Herzog struggles with reigning in the world of injustice, and as a result of taking life as it really is. 'B. proved himself not only the most intelligent novelist of his generation - wrote of the 'Duke' American critic Philip Rav - but also a writer, the most consistent theme of analyzing the roots and evolution of. In addition, it is, in my opinion, the best stylist of all contemporary American writers'. Critically acclaimed and the reading public, 'Duke' immediately took a leading position in the list of American best-seller.
B. wrote not only novels. In 1964, Mr.. Broadway was his play 'The latest analysis' ( 'The Last Analisis'). Three years later, in 1967, B. illuminates the Arab-Israeli conflict as a correspondent for the newspaper Newsday '(' Newsday '). Although the 'Memoirs Mosby' ( 'Mosby's Memoirs', 1968), a collection of six short stories, and the seventh novel, the writer's' Planet of Mr. Sammlera' ( 'Mr. Sammler's planet ', 1970) received mixed critical acclaim, B. again received in 1971. National Award for best book of the year - is the third in a row.
'Humboldt's Gift' ( 'Humboldt's Gift', 1975) brought B. international recognition. Comparing the fate of two American writers, prosperous and secular Sitrayna Charles and the late poet Von Humboldt Fleisher, (it is believed that it served as the prototype for an American poet Delmor Schwartz), B. writes about the spiritual authority of the artist in contemporary society, where success is valued above all else, fame and money. Although the 'Humboldt's Gift,' 'B. once again demonstrates his extraordinary intellectual and linguistic capabilities, ideological and artistic sights of the novel shot down - he wrote an American critic Roger Shattuck. - Charlie Sitrayn too close to B., . therefore negative character did not work ... ' 'The only really serious drawback' Humboldt's Gift ', . - Said an American writer and critic John Updike in the 'New Yorker', . - Is, . the problems, . of interest to the author, . in the novel do not work ',
. In this novel B. in 1975. was awarded the Pulitzer Prize.
B. received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1976. 'Humanist and subtle analysis of contemporary culture, combined in his work'. Presenting the prize, Karl Ragnar Gierow, a representative of the Swedish Academy, said a huge role B. in the development of American literature 'from the so-called' abrupt 'style to antigeroicheskomu'. 'As a result, - continued Gierow - got something totally new, peculiar to only one B. mixing 'pikaresknogo' novel and subtle analysis of our culture, a sharp story ... combined with a philosophical dialogue with the reader. And all this is written tongue brilliant artist, capable of insight into the external and internal conflicts that compel us to act or, conversely, do nothing ... Attaching importance to the local color, factography, B. gives an individual freedom, and thus the responsibility, the desire to act, the faith in the future '.
In his Nobel lecture B. spoke about the erosion of the hero in modern prose, but ironically, spoke about those intellectuals who 'govern the art'. 'I was amused when these highbrow essayists attempt to sign a death sentence by a literary forms', - he added, noting that 'the imagination itself must find its way'. In the age, . when literary, . philosophical and political system was powerless to help people, . continued BI, . 'the essence of our being, . its complexity, . confusion, . his pain, we are only fleeting impressions, . in, ,
. Roman is in constant motion between the world of objects, actions, events and the world 'insight', which leads us to an understanding that good, to which we aspire and for which we are caught in the face of evil - is not an illusion. "
. In the year of receipt of the Nobel Prize B
. published 'in Jerusalem and back: A personal experience' ( 'That Yerusalem and Back: A Personal Account') - a diary, which he kept during his trip to Israel in 1975. 'December dean' ( 'The Dean's December'), a novel whose action takes place in communist Romania and among American scientists, appeared in 1982. and in general was greeted with disapproving criticism. Two years later came a collection of stories B. 'Patsy and other stories' ( 'Him With His Foot in His Mouth and Other Stories'), which, according to some critics, marks a resurgence of talent B.
In 1937, Mr.. B. married Anita Goshkin, they had a son, Gregory. Second wife was the writer Alexander Shahbosova, which in 1956. bore him a son of Adam. From marriage to Susan A. Glassman (1961) in B. Born the third son, Daniel. At present, the writer is married to Alexandra Baghdasar, who came from Romania and works as a teacher of mathematics at the University of North Uestern. Sam B. something like his literary heroes. This is a typical city dweller, gray hair, a fine felt hat, intelligent, witty, but very serious about life.
Y B. is not only fans but also critics. Thus, noting the tendency of the writer to the formulation of moral problems, some critics accuse him of not knowing how to paint the characters, especially women, in sufficient vigorous development of the plot, the predominance of esseistskogo style. Although B. often come to mind exciting ideas, 'his novels sometimes turned into a monologue', says the American writer Stephen Miller, and the American critic Hugh Kenner once remarked that the result of artistic method B. is a novel, 'resemble a rough outline of the thesis'.
However, most critics consider B. one of the most refined American Writers, . developed such universal themes, . as the struggle of man with himself, . attempt to resolve the contradiction between individuality and society, . nonrecognizability reality in a fantasy world, . the conflict between hope and despair,
. 'B. not only the best in America, wrote, - noted American writer and literary critic Irving Howe - but thinks the best '.