Benavente y Martö-nez Jacinto( Spanish dramatist Nobel Prize for Literature, 1922)
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Biography Benavente y Martö-nez Jacinto
August 12, 1866, Mr.. - 14 July 1954
Spanish dramatist Jacinto Benavente y Martö-nez was born in Madrid. He was the youngest of three children of well-known and successful pediatrician. Growing up in a cultural family, he soon began to attend the theater and put little pieces for children for their loved ones. In 1882, Mr.. young man goes to the University of Madrid in the Faculty of Law. However, a student, he was rather careless, and after his father's death in 1885. resigned from the university and devoted himself to literature. For several years, B. led a secular life, and then became an actor.
The first of published books B. called 'Fantastic Theater' ( "Teatro Fantastico", 1892) and consisted of brief dramatic dialogues. A year later, the writer published volume of verse ( "Versos") and a prose collection of 'Letters from women' ( "Cartas de mujeres") - the first experiments with the budding writer in uncovering women's psychology. His first play 'Someone's Nest' ( "El mdo ajeno", 1894) was not successful, but the second, 'Famous People' ( "Gente conocida", 1896), significantly strengthened its popularity.
Soon B. became known as one of the leaders 'Generation 1898', a group of Spanish writers, who sought to restore the prestige of Spain after the defeat in the Spanish-American War. In 1899. playwright became editor of 'Literary Life' ( "Vida hterana"), mouthpiece of this movement.
In his early plays B. consciously broke with the melodrama JosöL Etchegaray, the leading Spanish dramatist of the preceding generation. Romantic declamation B. prefers satire and irony. intrigue - not important, the basis of his creative method - the wit, subtle hints and social psychology of characters. The success enjoyed his early plays such, . as a 'governor' ( "La gobernadora", . 1901), . a satire on corruption in the provincial town, . 'Saturday Night' ( "La noche del Sabado", . 1903), . allegorical play about decadents on the Riviera, . 'Princess Bebe' ( "La Princesa Bebe", . 1906), . subtle satire, . which contrasted with the noble ideals of democracy.,
. manifested itself in many genres: from his pen out comedy, peasant drama, tragedy, vaudeville, and librettos for operettas, plays for children, fairy tales, dramatic scenes in the style of the Eastern Theater. In 1907, Mr.. playwright wrote in the style of Italian comedy of masks its thirty-third consecutive play 'game of interests' ( "Los intereses creados"). In this, perhaps, the most significant play B. wily servant Crispin trying betrothed to his master a rich girl who acts as a kind of director who obey the other actors - smug and self-serving puppets. By the way, B. than once on stage playing the role of Crispin.
From 1908 to 1912. B. wrote not so much the plays, as usual, in these years, he has a weekly column in the Madrid newspaper 'impartial' ( "Imparcial"), where he wrote on a variety of topics, and became a leading literary critic of Spain.
. Play 'Martyr' ( "La malquerida") was written in 1913, this naturalistic and psychological tragedy of peasant life was the only piece B., . which was a success in the United States, . where it was two years in New York and in the province.,
. In 1920, Mr.
. B. becomes principal director of the theater 'Espanyol', the National Theater of Spain. In the same year he exhibited his candidacy in the Cortes (Parliament), but fails. In the early 20-ies. the quality of his literary output is gradually reduced, and a new generation of critics, refers to his work lightly. Within four years of B. not written a single play.
It was during this period, in 1922, playwright awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature 'for the brilliant skill with which he continued the glorious tradition of Spanish drama'. Per Halstrem, the representative of the Swedish Academy, said in his speech that 'B. contemplates the world to be extremely sharp and penetrating gaze, and contemplated measures and weighs the sensitive and flexible intellect '. "His main goal - continued Halstrem - to reproduce the richness and fullness of life, to show the game characters and the struggle of minds with a maximum of truthfulness'. At the official ceremony B. absent, so the prize was awarded to the Spanish Ambassador in Sweden.
When B. was awarded the Grand Cross of Alfonso the Wise, a very prestigious Spanish literary prize, and won (1924), honorary citizen of Madrid, he returned to drama. In the same year with success came on the scene of his play 'The lessons of good love' ( "Lecciones de buen amor"). In subsequent years the creative activity of B. increased markedly - just as they have created more than 170 pieces. However, the play, written after receiving the Nobel Prize, in the unanimous opinion of critics, inferior to his early works.
During the Civil War sympathies B. were on the Republican side. His whereabouts remained unknown for a long time, there were rumors that the playwright was murdered by supporters of Generalissimo Franco. According to other sources, B. fled to Valencia, where he was captured by the nationalists, returned to Madrid and placed under house arrest. After the war, the writer took the Franco regime, than disappoint many of his liberal friends and admirers.
In 1944, in connection with the fiftieth anniversary of the appearance on the stage the first play playwright, B. received congratulations from all parts of Spain, his most popular plays were many theaters in the new production. Four years later, the writer was given an award for the best Mariano Kavia newspaper article published in the Spanish press.
B., who never married, continued to write for the theater until his death - the writer died in Madrid in 1954. a heart attack.
During the flowering of his talent, creativity B. enjoyed tremendous popularity not only in Spain but throughout Europe, as well as in the United States of America. In 1920, Mr.. English novelist Storm Jameson compares B. with 'the greatest Spanish playwright'. 'His comedies peculiar imagination, poetic grace, technical excellence and intellectual exceptionalism' - wrote Jameson. In 1929, Mr.. In his book on contemporary Spanish literature, English critic Leslie Warren called B. 'leading Spanish dramatist', and in 1947. American scholar Horatio Smith observed that the product B. 'give reason to consider him one of the most prominent contemporary satirists'. 'Many of his characters will outlive him - said Ecuadorian writer Luis Jaramillo in one of his articles in 1971 - because they are not ghosts or phantoms, and real people, men and women living their daily lives. At the same time they retain poetry, which they gave B. due to its mysterious and magical talent. "
Nevertheless, after the death of B. attitude of criticism has changed. 'His plays do not stand up to careful analysis - wrote in 1955. American literary critic Roberto G. Sanchez. - At the same time B. was clever enough to fool many intellectuals'. Although the Spanish critic Alfredo Marker believes that 'Theater B. devoid of ideas and philosophical observations ', he nevertheless stressed:' B. has much in common with Oscar Wilde and Bernard Shaw, first of all they have in common irony, a play on words ... making characters sound mind in a new and original '.