Bjornson Beristerne( Norwegian poet, dramatist, novelist and journalist, Nobel Prize for Literature, 1903)
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Biography Bjornson Beristerne
December 8, 1832, Mr.. - April 26, 1910
Norwegian poet, dramatist, novelist and journalist Bernsterne Martinius Bjornson was the eldest of six sons of the Lutheran pastor Peder BjöTrnson and daughter merchant Bjornson Eliza (nee Nurdrok). When B. was 5 years old, his family moved from Kvikne, a small parish in the mountains, picturesque district Romsdal in western Norway, where the boy identified the school in the coastal town of Molde. Precocious, B. wrote poetry, he published a handwritten newspaper, showed great interest in politics.
In 1849, Mr.. B. arrived in Christiania (now Oslo) to prepare for entrance exams to university here, he met with Henrik Ibsen and other major Norwegian writers. In University B. enrolled in 1852, however, reached adulthood in the next year, he stopped attending classes and plunged into the political, theatrical and literary life of the city. For two years in various newspapers went out of his theater reviews and critical articles, they also launched a campaign to establish a Norwegian National Theater B. became a leading cultural figure in the country.
In 1854, Mr.. B. operates a theater critic in the morning newspaper Oslo 'Morgenbladet' ( "Morgenbladet"), . and two years later began to publish 'Illyustreret Folkebladet' ( "Illustreret Folkebladet") - Journal, . which were first published they recorded folk tales,
. In the summer of 1856. B. going to the student gatherings in Sweden, where, according to the critic Harald Larson, 'he was shocked by memories of the past, view of national costumes, weapons, tombs Swedish kings'. Inspired by the idea of recreating the history of their own country, B. wrote an essay 'How I became a poet', which solemnly vowed to create a 'gallery of ancestors' of the historical plays, in order to revive the Norwegian people's sense of national pride.
. In order to fulfill its obligations to the national theater, B
. in 1857. became director of the new 'Norske Theater' in Bergen. The following year, B. married to actress Caroline Reimers, from the marriage with whom he had several children. One of the sons of the writer, Bjorn, became famous actor and director, and Berglyut daughter married the son of Ibsen, Sigurd. Working in the theater, B. continued to write poems, plays and novels, published a newspaper, in politics. His poem, 'Yes, we love this land' ( "Ja, vi elsker dette Landet"), written in 1859, was later set to music and became the Norwegian national anthem.
Returning in 1859, Mr.. Oslo, B. began publishing a daily evening newspaper 'Aftenbladet' ( "Aftenbladet"), when it became the organ of the new liberal party. However, his liberal and reformist editorials were so unpopular that soon the writer had to resign as chief editor. From 1860 to 1863. B. lived abroad, mainly in Italy, but returned to become director of the Oslo 'Christiania Theater' (1865 ... 1867).
Until 1873. B. mostly wrote poems, songs, tales, novels and plays on historical subjects. Like Ibsen, the protagonists of these works were peasants and medieval heroes of the sagas of the Norwegian. This lyrical novel, . as 'SynnöTve Sulbakken' ( "Synneve Solbakken", . 1857), . 'Arne' ( "Arne", . 1859) and 'cheerful guy' ( "En Glad Gut", . 1860), . stylistically close to the Norwegian oral folk legends, . depicts the life of the peasantry in modern society and usually end on a positive note,
. Influential Danish critic Georg Brandes in 1886. noted in one of his essays, that 'cheerful guy' 'like a refreshing breeze, carrying the relief from dreary melancholy, aggravated Norwegian mind'. Yet B. sought not so much to glorify the life of cheerful villagers, . show how, . that with their stoicism and love of adventure, they are the spiritual heirs of those often doomed heroes of his historical tragedies, . who fought for the reconciliation of paganism with Christianity,
. His first play 'Valborg' ( "Valborg") B. withdrew from the production, because it considered it too trivial - so the first play of the writer considered to be 'between battles' ( "Mellem Slagene", 1857). During this historic piece, which describes the dramatic events of the XII century. in Norway, followed by others: 'Lame Gould' ( "Halte Hulda", 1858), 'King Sverre' ( "Kong Sverre", 1861), 'Sigurd Evil' ( "Sigurd Slembe", 1863) and 'Mary Stuart in Scotland '( "Maria Stuart i Skotland", 1864). Trilogy 'Sigurd Evil', tells the story of the mysterious medieval contender for the throne, is considered the best of plays, written B. explanation of the Norwegian sagas, and put on a par with 'The struggle for the throne' Ibsen.
By the end of 1860-ies. B poetry. flourished. In 1870, Mr.. out of his 'Poems and Songs' ( "Digte og Sange"), many of which were later set to music. The epic poem in fifteen songs 'Arnlyut Gelline' ( "Arnljot Gelline") was published in the same year, 1870, and was commended Georg Brandes, who called her 'unsurpassed beauty describe nature'. However, the same Brandes, fascinated by the ideas of Charles Darwin, John Stuart Mill, Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve, and Hippolyte Taine, urged B. change their literary tastes. In the series of lectures delivered at Copenhagen in 1871, Brandeis called Scandinavian writers to abandon the romantic and nationalist ideas in favor of a realistic interpretation of human problems, and B. soon followed by his call.
In 1873 ... 1876. writer living in Rome, at the time he leaves the folklore and historical themes and appeals to the social criticism. A passionate defender of political and cultural independence of Norway, B. shared the idea of "pan-Scandinavism ', advocates for peace and international civil rights. Despite the fact that B. Christianity is considered life-affirming religion that he rejected the divine nature of Christ and openly criticized the Lutheran Church for failing to understand the laws of evolution and of the importance that Lutherans give to sin and condemned to eternal torment. Views B. forced devout Norwegians to condemn it as a heretic. Perhaps for this reason, the writer and spent a long time abroad, including in the United States (1881). In 1893, Mr.. B. settled on a farm in Norway, where he often traveled to Denmark, France, Germany and Italy.
B. was the first Norwegian writer, began writing plays with serious social issues - genre, which was to develop Ibsen. In the 'Bankruptcy' ( "En fallit", 1875), embodying the work of speculators - a topic previously considered taboo for serious drama. In the 'Editor' ( "Redakteren", 1875) describes the effects of the journalistic sensationalism. In the dramatic poem 'The King' ( "Kongen", 1877) - eclectic mix of comedy and melodrama - the writer criticizes the monarchy and church dogma.
In 1880-ies. B. creates its best 'problem' play. In 'glove' ( "En handske", 1883) the writer challenges the duality of bourgeois morality in matters of sex. The essence of the drama 'Over our forces' ( "Over Evne", 1886), which launched a fanatical priest who intentionally does not save his wife, that morality and human values must take precedence over religious fanaticism. This drama was successfully held throughout Europe, and in its New York production of the main roles are played by Patrick Campbell. His own passion for political campaigns B. ridiculed in the play 'Love and geography' ( "Geografi og kjaerlighed", 1885).
In 1884, Mr.. B. written a rough realistic novel 'flags wafted over the city and overlooking the harbor' ( "Det Flager i Buen og pa havnen"), a discussion of sex education in schools for girls. In another realist novel 'God's way' ( "Pa Guds Veje", 1889) disclosed a conflict between science and religion. These works, according to the English critic Edmund Gosse, 'very precise detail and observation'.
In 1903, Mr.. B. was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature 'for the noble and highly versatile poetry, which has always distinguished the freshness of inspiration and the rare purity of spirit', as well as 'epic and dramatic talent'. In his Nobel lecture B. said that this writer must be able to distinguish good from evil: 'Good and bad ideas have played a role in all areas of our lives, and they are part of our desire for knowledge, nourish our vital energy ... The purpose of any art is to reflect these ideas. "
In 1910, a year after the issuance of the last writer of the drama "When a new vines bloom '(" Nar den ny vin blomstrer "), B. died in Paris at age 77. The nine collected works of the writer was published in 1919
According to the American critic, a native of Norway Hjalmar Yorsa Boyes, B. 'seen in a tattered peasant Norwegian national greatness, and an ear to the heart of the nation, heard the beating of her hidden emotions. And when he raised his voice and sang every Scandinavian felt that it was his own voice '. Although at the time B. compared with Ibsen, today it is better known and more appreciated as a poet and storyteller than as a playwright. Power of poetry B., wrote the English critic XX in. James Walter McFarlane, is 'their wholehearted sacrifice, simplicity and naturalness of feelings', as well as lyricism and patriotism. Comparing B. with Ibsen (who was never awarded the Nobel Prize), British critic Bryan. Downs noted that the 'future on the side of Ibsen, who remains a great power of the literary world, which is not the B. and at the same time, the product AB, as a rule, deserve attention. "