Gabriel Garcia MARQUEZ (MARQUEZ Gabriel Garcia)( Colombian writer and journalist, Nobel Prize for Literature, 1982)
Comments for Gabriel Garcia MARQUEZ (MARQUEZ Gabriel Garcia)
Biography Gabriel Garcia MARQUEZ (MARQUEZ Gabriel Garcia)
Born March 6, 1928
Colombian writer and journalist Gabriel Jose Garcia Marquez, the eldest of sixteen children, was born in Colombia in the town Arakataka - banana port on the Caribbean coast. When gm. was still a child, his father, underpaid telegraph operator, he moved with his wife in another city, leaving Gabriel's foster parents of his wife. Especially close gm. was with his grandmother told him a lot of legends and myths that formed the basis of many works of the future writer. GM's grandfather, a retired colonel, told his grandson 'endless stories about the civil war of his youth'. 'He took me to the circus and the cinema and was a kind of umbilical cord connects me with the history and reality', - says the writer.
After the death of his grandfather (1936) gm. briefly studied in Barranquilla, has not yet acquired enough knowledge to go to school in Mr.. Zipakira near Bogota, where he received a degree bachillerato, which roughly corresponds to a college diploma in the United States. Columbia University's law faculty gm. enrolled in 1947. - In the same year in the Bogota newspaper 'observer' ( 'Espectador') was published his first novel 'The third failure' ( 'La tercera resignacion'). Over the next six years in the same newspaper saw the light about a dozen stories gm. Arriving in 1948. in Cartagena, the writer continued his legal education and two years later became a reporter in the 'Herald' ( 'Heraldo'), where he continued heading 'Giraffe'. In 1954
Gm. again returned to Bogotц¦ and became a reporter for 'Observer'.
As a serious writer gm. first manifests itself in 1955, wrote a novel 'Palaya foliage' ( 'La hojarasca'). At the same time gm. prints in the 'Observer' 14 articles of marine life, which reveals the facts of carriage smuggling Colombian warships. These articles have caused such a scandal that the newspaper was closed, and GM, was sent to Europe correspondent, 'Observer', was left without a livelihood.
In 1958, Mr.. Gm. marries Mercedes Bartsch, they have two sons - and Rodrigo Gonzalez.
Having worked in Europe as a freelance journalist for two years, gm. settled in Prensa Latina - Cuban government news agency, and in 1961,. moved to Mexico City, where a living scripts and magazine articles and in his spare time writing books. For the story 'No One Writes to the Colonel' ( 'El coronel no tiene quien le escriba', 1961) a year followed by a collection of short stories 'The funeral of Mama Grande' ( 'Los funerales de la Mama Grande').
However the commercial success gm. brought emerged in 1967. novel 'One Hundred Years of Solitude' ( 'Cien anos de soledad'). The first edition of the novel, . which Pablo Neruda wrote enthusiastically, . that, . 'perhaps, . greatest revelation in Spanish since "Don Quixote" ', . out of print for a week and caused, . According to a leading Peruvian writer Vargas Llosa, . 'literary earthquake',
. In this novel, the fictional village of Macondo (withdrawn from the town Arakataka, where gm. spent his childhood) symbolizes Latin America, and its founder Buendia with their descendants - the history of the world. 'One Hundred Years of Solitude' - is this literary jungle - wrote an American critic William McPherson. - This is a fantastic creation of magic, metaphor and myth '.
. In the center of the next novel by the writer's 'Autumn of the Patriarch' ( 'El otono del patriarca', 1975) - exaggerated image of the fictional American dictator, which is considered from various angles
. The novel "Chronicle of a Death Foretold '(' Cronica de una muerte anunciada ') appeared in 1981, innovative in form, he tells of the murder, perceived differently by various and unreliable witnesses.
A year after the release of 'The Chronicles ...' Gm. received the Nobel Prize for Literature 'for the novels and short stories, where fantasy and reality are combined, reflect the life and conflicts of a continent'. 'For many years Latin American literature demonstrates this power, which is rarely seen in other regions of the literary', - said when awarding the representative of the Swedish Academy Lars Yyullensten. - In the works gm. popular culture ... Spanish Baroque ... influence of European Surrealism and other modernist movements are subtle and vital mix '. Yyullensten also noted that 'gm. does not hide his political sympathies, he was standing on the side of the weak and disadvantaged, against oppression and economic exploitation '.
Stopping in his Nobel lecture on the living conditions in Central and South America, gm. touched upon the exploitation of the indigenous South American population. 'I venture to think, - he said - that South American reality, not just its literary expression, deserve the attention of the Swedish Academy'. In conclusion, he agreed, . that the writer is responsible for 'creating utopia, . where no one can decide for others, . as they die, . where love is real, . and happiness - is possible and where people, . doomed to a hundred years of solitude, . will find in the end the right to life '.,
. Continuing to live in Mexico City, gm
. most of his time in Cartagena, homeland. Said that he a personal friend of Fidel Castro - and this despite the fact that the policy of Cuba, where the writer is often far from all he likes.
. Children's experiences associated with life on the Caribbean coast, have left an indelible mark on the literary gm
. 'It seems that most strongly affected the imagination gm. his grandmother, - wrote the British novelist Salman Rushdie in 'London Review of Books' ( 'London Review of Books'). - And still you can find the beginning of his literary predecessors. He acknowledges the influence of Faulkner, and indeed, the magic world of Macondo - is largely the county Yoknapatawpha County, transferred to the Colombian jungle '. Other critics have written about the impact on gm. such diverse writers as John Dos Passos, Virginia Woolf, Albert Camus and Ernest Hemingway.
However, some critics have questioned whether gm. call a great writer, and his main book 'One Hundred Years of Solitude' - the immortal masterpiece. American critic Joseph Epstein in 'Kommenteri' ( 'Commentary') extols compositional skills novelist, but finds that 'his unbridled virtuosity bored'. 'Regardless of politics - said Epstein - stories and novels gm. have a moral core, they do not exist in a moral universe '.
. Reviewing the novel 'Chronicle of a Death Foretold', Bill Baford wrote that the author of 'The Chronicles ...' - It 'certainly one of the most brilliant and most' magical 'political novelists of our time'
. 'His books illuminated sparkling irony and belief that human values imperishable, - said George R. McMurray in the monograph 'Gabriel Garcia Marquez' (1977). - In his works gm. penetrated into the essence of not only Hispanics, but also any other person '