Gerhart Hauptmann (Hauptmann Gerhart)( German dramatist and novelist)
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Biography Gerhart Hauptmann (Hauptmann Gerhart)
November 15, 1862, Mr.. - June 6, 1946
German dramatist and novelist Gerhart Johann Robert Hauptmann was born in Oberzaltsbrunne (now Szczawno-Zdroj, Poland), the famous resort in Silesia. He was the youngest of four children of Robert Hauptmann, owner of the luxury hotel, and Mary Shtreler. Studied Gerhart in a rural school, where he studied Latin, and in the gymnasium in Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poland). But to her duties as a young man showed little interest, believing the school 'torture', and at age 15 was sent to explore the farm work on the estate of his uncle, where he lived for a year. Although Gerhart stay on the farm was short-lived, the experience which he acquired, further affected. 'That's when I began to understand that I represent, what I stand and what are my rights - wrote to Mr.. 30 years later. - I gained independence, determination and their own view of the world - everything that had and now '.
In 1880, Mr.. on the advice of his brother, Charles G. entered the Art Academy in Breslau in the class of sculpture, and the following year became engaged to Maria Tineman, a wealthy woman who at first assisted her fiance solid material assistance. Learning from the history department of University of Jena, D. friends with an eminent German biologist and philosopher Ernst Haeckel, who introduced him to the ideas of Charles Darwin, who had a great influence for his theories on the development of realism in European literature.
. While studying sculpture in Rome in 1883 ... 1884., D
. interested in ancient art and wrote epico-romantic poem, explanations of the myth of Prometheus. In 1885, Mr.. he married Mary Tineman and settled in the town Erkner in a suburb of Berlin, which falls on Wednesday, progressive-minded intellectuals and enthusiastically read Marx, Engels and Tolstoy, Zola and Ibsen.
. Despite the fact that naturalism, at that time already well established in the literature of Russia, France and the Scandinavian countries, Germany, the artistic method was not available, romanticism remained major literary genre in German literature
. In 1889, Mr.. group of German writers and critics created a theater-studio 'Free Stage', which were first put 'Ghosts' of Ibsen, and then the first play Mr.. 'Before Sunrise' ( "Vor Sonnenaufgang", 1889) - the tragic history of quick wealth and an equally rapid collapse of the peasant family, written in the Silesian dialect. First naturalistic drama in German, the play shocked the audience with her ruthless verisimilitude and a living national language, thanks to her scandalous success of the D. talking as a serious, aspiring playwright.
In the next two plays G., 'Holiday Truce' ( "Das Friedensfest", 1890) and 'Single' ( "Einsame Menschen", 1891), the influence of Ibsen. The true acceptance brought D. play 'Weavers' ( "Die Weber", 1893), sustained in a realistic description of the key strikes Silesian weavers in 1844. The playwright refuses to here from the traditional division of actors on the positive and negative, from the moral trial of his heroes.
. 'Beaver fur coat' ( "Der Biberpelz", 1893), a satirical comedy about the pliant laundress, also written in a naturalistic manner
. However, in the next play, 'The Ascension Hannele' ( 'Nanneles Himmelfahrt ", 1894), D. surprised audiences and critics, and a departure from naturalism to symbolism and fantasy. In this play, naturalistic scenes in prose, depicting the life of an inoculated 14-year-old girl, alternate with poetic passages, which constitute its dreams. Returning to the naturalism in 'Floriana Geyer' ( "Florian Geyer", 1896), G. provides a broad historical panorama of the peasant war in 1524 ... 1525 he. In 'the sunken bell' ( "Die versunkene Glocke", 1897) G., depicting the ordeals of the artist, craftsmen, extensive use of elements of fairy tales, legends and beliefs.
Meanwhile Mr.. persecuted family problems. In 1900, Mr.. young violinist and actress Margaret Marshal gave birth to a son. The following year, Mr.. building a house in Agnetendorfe (now Yagnyakuv, Poland), which moves together with the Marshal and the child. In 1904, after divorcing his wife, with whom he had three children, he married Marshal.
Upset falling popularity and lack of creative energy, G, in 1907. sent to Greece, where he created 'Greek Spring' ( "Griechischer Fruhling", 1908). Written in the form of a travel diary, this book is really an attempt to r. to understand the contradiction between the commitment to the Christian heritage and the thrust to paganism of ancient culture. On this same theme, and two novels: 'The Simpleton Emmanuel Quint' ( "Der Narr in Christo Emmanuel Quint", . 1910) - history of Silesia Carpenter, . modern mysticism, . whose life is compared with the life of Jesus, and the 'Island of the Great Mother' ( "Die Insel der grossen Mutter", . 1912).,
. B 1912 D
. was awarded the Nobel Prize 'primarily in recognition of the fruitful, varied and outstanding work in the field of dramatic art'. The representative of the Swedish Academy, Hans Hildebrand, in his speech praised the ability of G. 'penetrate into the depths of the human spirit ... Realism in the plays of Mr.. inevitably leads to the dream of a new and better life, to realizing that dream into reality '.
Thanking the Nobel committee in a brief acceptance speech, Mr.. paid tribute to 'the ideals, which serves as the Nobel Foundation'. 'I mean the ideal of universal peace, which ultimately seek the art and science', - he said.
Being a pacifist throughout life, T. preserved their beliefs and during the First World War, after Germany's defeat in 1918. playwright advocated the establishment of the Weimar Republic. After Hitler came to power, despite the fact that Hitler and Nazism were repulsive to him, the playwright chose to stay at home, which aroused discontent of many of his admirers.
During the 'Third Reich' play D. rarely were placed on the stage, however, the Nazi government in 1942. allocated funds for the publication of a comprehensive 17-volume collected works of dramatist. During these years the writer created a fantastic poem 'The great dream'
. ( "Der grosse Traum", 1942) and 'Atreidai' ( "Die Atriden-Tetralogie", 1949) - dramatic tetralogy of poems on the theme of the Greek legend of the Atreidai, where the brutality of the Greek myth echoes the horrors of the Second World War.
. When in 1945
. Allies bombed Dresden, a city that Mr.. very fond of, the playwright was deeply shocked and fell into apathy. In 1946, Mr.. G. died of pneumonia at his home in Agnetendorfe.
After the death of Mr.. His fame has dimmed, the play the playwright were now, as a rule, only in Germany and much less in other countries. 'The plays, written over the past 25 years of life, nothing is not represented, - wrote the critic John Gassner - and now even his most important works of sound false - both within Germany and abroad. "
Even ardent admirer G. recognize that the most successful of his plays - early. Nevertheless, assessing the achievements dramatist as a whole, his biographer, Hugh calls Mr. Garten. 'one of the last true humanist, who inherited and, in all their diversity of characters, developed a great European tradition