August 14, 1867, Mr.. - 31 January 1933
English novelist, playwright and poet John Galsworthy
was born in the town of Qom, Surrey, a wealthy bourgeois family. The only son of John Galsworthy
, a wealthy lawyer, director of the London company, and Blanche (Bartleet) Galsworthy
, he was educated at Harrow and Oxford University. Being in 1890. lawyer, he never engaged in legal practice, preferring to live in his pleasure, a lot of reading and travel. During a trip around the world that the future writer undertook to deepen the knowledge in maritime law, Mr.. met Joseph Conrad, with whom a friendship for life.
At the age of 28 years under the influence of Ada Galsworthy
, the wife of his cousin Arthur, with whom Mr.. began an affair, a young man decides to become a writer, and in 1897. under the pseudonym John
Sindzhon publishes his first book - a collection of short stories 'Four Winds' ( 'From the Four Winds'). First novel writer 'Joslin' ( 'Jocelyn') appeared a year later, . second - 'Villa Rubeyn' ( 'Villa Rubein') - in 1900, . and the next collection of short stories, . released a year later, . already contains a reference to the Forsyte family, . which he was to immortalize in the books of a later time,
. Under the influence of Turgenev, Maupassant and Leo Tolstoy G. three years, wrote and rewrote his fifth book - 'The Island Pharisees' ( 'The Island of Pharisees', 1904), the first novel, which Mr.. issued under his real name.
After his father's death (1904) G. gained financial independence, Ada, moved in with him, and when a year later ended her divorce, young people got married. Ability to live together, not hiding, after nine years of public censure, sharp attacks from family and friends inspired Mr.. the novel 'owner' ( 'The Man of Property'), which was completed in 1906. and that describes the failed marriage of Ada as an example of relations Soames and Irene Forsyte. This novel, which brought Mr.. reputation as a serious writer, became the most famous of his works. According to Dudley Barker, D. argued that 'in these pages, he carved the big bourgeoisie'. 'Owner' was the first volume of the trilogy 'The Forsyte Sagas' ( 'The Forsyte Saga'). By Forsyte G. not return until the end of World War, . but in that time released 'Estates' ( 'The Country House', . 1907) - a novel about the landed gentry, . 'Brotherhood' ( 'The Fraternity', . 1909) - the intelligentsia, . and 'Patrician' ( 'The Patrician', . 1911) - the aristocracy.,
. As a result of staging the first completed piece G
. 'The Silver Box' ( 'The Silver Box', 1906) the writer has received recognition as a playwright. The most successful plays, written by Mr.. before the First World War, except for 'silver casket', were 'Struggle' ( 'Strife', 1909) and 'Justice' ( 'Justice', 1910). All three plays realistic and expose social abuses; The latter ( 'Justice') condemns the practice of solitary confinement, . in connection with what Winston Churchill said, . that this play has had a major impact on its program of prison reform.,
. spent at least half of their income to charity and actively advocated social reform, agitation for the revision of laws on censorship, divorce, the minimum wage, women's suffrage. Even the terminally ill, the writer ordered that the Nobel Prize was given to PEN (poets, essayists, novelists) - the international writers' organization, which Mr.. founded in October 1921
In 1917, Mr.. G. refused knighted, believing that the writers and reformers should not take titles. At the beginning of next year, the writer published a collection of short stories, entitled 'Five Stories' ( 'Five Tales'); in one of the stories - 'The last summer of a Forsyte' ( 'The Indian Summer of a Forsyte') - T. returns to the Forsyte family. 'In the loop' ( 'In Chancery'), the second volume of 'The Forsyte Sagas', appeared in 1920, and 'For Rent' ( 'To Let'), the latter part of the trilogy - in 1921. Omnibus 'saga The Forsyte', released in 1922, had tremendous success, thanks to which Mr.. became a leading figure in Anglo-American literature.
While strictly observing the rule to write every morning, Mr.. created an impressive body of literary production, which includes 20 novels, 27 plays, 3 collections of poems, 173 short stories, 5 collections of essays, at least 700 letters and numerous essays and notes of different content.
. The second trilogy of The Forsyte, entitled 'Modern Comedy' ( 'A Modern Comedy'), writer, graduated in 1928, 'Modern Comedy' was published posthumously in one volume in 1929
. Last trilogy, devoted family Charuell, was released in 1933. wife of the writer under the title 'End of chapter' ( 'End of the Chapter').
In 1929, Mr.. G. was awarded the British Order of Merit and in 1932. he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature 'for the high art of narration, the apex of which is "The Forsyte Saga"'. 'The author traced the history of his time for three generations, . - Said the representative of the Swedish Academy Anders Esterling, . - And then, . a writer so successfully mastered the extremely difficult as the volume, . and on the depth of material, . its credit,
. 'The Forsyte Saga' - a noticeable phenomenon in English literature '. Esterling congratulated Mr.. the fact that he was able to discern the fate of individual characters 'historical background', 'transformation and disintegration of the Victorian era until the present day'. G. Skill Esterling compared with Turgenev, novelist, noting the irony of it, 'a synonym for love of life and humanity'. G. was seriously ill (brain tumor) and at the awards ceremony was not present, less than two months after handing him the Nobel Prize writer died.
After the death of Mr.. His fame began to decline. Most implacable of his critics were Az. Lawrence and Virginia Woolf. Accusing Mr.. and his contemporaries, Arnold Bennett and HG Wells in the promotion, Woolf wrote: 'To their novels ended, the hero must do something - to enter into some sort of society or, worse, write a check'. On the pages of 'Spectator' ( 'Spectator') in 1963. English critic Bernard Bergonzi said that, 'violating secular conventions, Mr.. became a writer, but he only had to establish itself in this capacity, he once again fell victim to the prejudices of his class and upbringing ... G. continued to be a wonderful storyteller ... But as soon as he ceased to be a satirist, his work has lost its emotional core '.
English novelist Anthony Burgess in his article in The New York Times Magazine '(' New York Times Magazine ') (1969) also noted that Mr.. able to gain readers, however, wrote the intellect, not in heart. 'He had an influence on such giants as Thomas Mann, he read French and worshiped in Russia - wrote Burgess - but at home in England, he won the hearts of the mediocre. Intellectuals his rejected '. For Mr. Burgess. remains one of the many British writers of his generation, who "cared less about words than about what lies behind the words'.
Although the moral values and literary skill of Mr.. may seem old-fashioned in an era when the dominant themes are alienation and social nihilism, he 'will remain in the history of literature the last major prose of the Victorian age', - says American critic, Earl E. Stevens.
In the life of Mr.. awarded honorary degrees from Trinity College, Dublin University, and honorary degrees from Cambridge, Oxford and Princeton universities, universities of Manchester and Sheffield.