Gjellerup Karl Adolph( Danish novelist and playwright, Nobel Prize for Literature, 1917)
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Biography Gjellerup Karl Adolph
June 2, 1857, Mr.. - October 13, 1919
Danish novelist and playwright Carl Adolf Gjellerup Roholte born in the family of Anna (Fibiger) Gjellerup and Karl Adolf Gjellerup, Lutheran clergyman, who died when the boy was 3 years. Charles brought in Copenhagen cousin of his mother Johans Fibiger, priest, theologian and poet, had a significant influence on the young Mr.. While still a schoolboy, Mr.. began writing and soon after the end Herslevskoy School (1874) composed a tragedy 'Scipio Africanus' ( "Scipio Africanus") and drama 'Arminius' ( "Arminius"); neither one nor the other pieces were not published.
In the same year, Mr.. entered the University of Copenhagen on the theological faculty. The university youth acquainted with Darwin's book and is keen radical literary theories of large-scale Danish literary critic Georg Brandes. It was a time of critical reflection on the Bible, when the authenticity of the Fourth Gospel has cast doubts. G. ceased to believe in God and in spite of the theological degree, left the university (1878) atheist. In his student years at the G. most influenced by such giants of German literature as Goethe, Kant, and especially of Schiller, whose poems were used for T. sample.
'Idealist' ( "En idealist", 1878), small-volume novel, written immediately after graduating from university, was first published work of Mr.. In this novel, published under the pseudonym imitator shows a spirited young intellectual, who rejects the theology and church. In the second novel, 'The student of the Germans' ( "Germanernes laeriing", 1882), withdrawn young man felt as he and GM, the crisis of faith.
In short stories, written T. in subsequent years, such as 'G Major' ( "G-Dur", 1883) and 'Romulus' ( "Romulus", 1883), keenly felt the influence of Turgenev. At this time, the writer travels to Italy, Greece, Germany, Russia, Switzerland and Sweden, as reflected in the 'Classical month' ( "En klassisk maaned", 1884) and in the 'Year of wanderings' ( "Vandreaaret", 1885), marking the gap G. with the radical movement and Brandes, naturalism which the writer chose to German classicism and ancient literature. The most significant early works G. a drama in verse 'Brunhilda' ( "Brynhild", 1884), inspired by 'Der Ring des Nibelungen "by Richard Wagner. Affects 'Brunhilde' and the influence of Greek drama, Shakespeare's verse and white alliterativnogo verse Old Icelandic 'Edda'.
Between 1885 and 1887. G. lived in Dresden, where he completed a dramatic poem 'Tameer' ( "Thamyris"), and in 1887, Mr.. married Anna Carolina Heusinger, the former wife of musician Felix Bendix and cousin Georg Brandes. For 'Brunhildu' and 'Tamir' G. received a lifetime pension. His next works were "Hagbard and Signe '(" Hagbard og Signe ", 1888), a tragedy in prose and verse, which is based on Danish folk legend, and a love affair' Minna '(" Minna ", 1889), which was set Dresden. During these years the writer publishes poetry collection 'The book of my love' ( "Min kaerligheds bog", 1889).
Moving away from the heroic tragedy, Mr.. begins to write contemporary drama in the spirit of Ibsen: 'Herman Bandelj' ( "Herman Vandel", . 1891) - about an unhappy love and suicide of a young school teacher, . 'Vutorn' ( "Wuthorn", . 1893) - the tragedy of lovers of the mountain village, . and 'His Excellency' ( "Hans Excellence", . 1895) - about selling to a government official,
. Drama 'Vutorn' more than 100 times played in Copenhagen theater Dagmar.
In 1892, Mr.. G. settled with his family in Dresden and began to write in German, which he called his 'true means of expression'. In those years writing a novel 'Pastor Morse' ( "Pastor Mors", 1894) - libel on the Protestant clergyman, and the 'Mill' ( "Mollen", 1896), which deals with the repentant murderer from the Danish village. Subsequent work G., in his own words, 'belong to the German literature ... and found their true understanding mainly in Germany '.
In mid-1890. under the influence of Schopenhauer and Buddhist teachings G. keen on the idea of dissolving the beginning of a personal nirvana. Under the influence of Buddhism written 'sacrificial fires' ( "Die Opferfeuer", . 1903) - a play about religious ways of the pupil of Gautama Buddha, . and such novels, . as 'Pilgrim Kamanita' ( "Der Pilger Kamanita", . 1906), . tells about young people, . lived at the time of the Buddha, . and 'Wandering Jew' ( "Die Weltwanderer", . 1910) - the story of two lovers, . are aware, . it is not the first of their life.,
. Significant role in the awarding of the Nobel Prize for Literature 1917
. played by political considerations. Although Sweden during the First World War, remained neutral, its proximity to Germany was perceived ambiguously. Meetings between the kings of Denmark, Norway and Sweden were designed to strengthen the unity of the Scandinavian nations. To once again demonstrate the neutrality of Sweden and its friendly ties with Denmark, the Swedish Academy awarded once two Danish writers - G. and Henrik Pontoppidan. G. was awarded the Nobel Prize 'for diverse poetry and lofty ideals'. Because of the war, no medal ceremony was held. The news of the awarding r. was met in Denmark without enthusiasm - at home D. considered primarily a German writer.
G. died in 1919. in Klotsshe near Dresden. When the writer's life lauded him for his use of literary forms, philosophical ideas of the sublime, but after the death of Mr.. its author's style gradually lost its appeal, and posthumous reputation did not go to any comparison with the lifetime.