Andre Gide (Gide Andre)( French novelist, essayist and critic, Nobel Prize for Literature, 1947)
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Biography Andre Gide (Gide Andre)
November 22, 1869, Mr.. - 19 February 1951
Andre Paul Guillaume Gide, French novelist, essayist and critic, was born in Paris to a family of Huguenot Paul Gide, a professor of Paris University, and Juliette (Rondo) Gide. After his father's death in 1880. ZH. Genevan educated mother, who devoted his whole life.
Due to poor health, the young man received a disorderly education: he attended different schools, worked with tutors at home. In Ecole Alsace, Protestant secondary school in Paris, he developed an interest in literature, especially Greek poetry, encouraged by his mother, he is also seriously engaged in music. In 1889, Mr.. ZH. final examination in high school and decides to become a writer.
Secured his inheritance, F. able to fully devote himself to literature, and in 1891. published his first book 'Pens Andre Walter' ( 'Les Cahiers d'Andre Walter'). Theme of this autobiographical work, . written in verse and poetic prose, . - The struggle between flesh and spirit, . which ends the renunciation of the flesh, . - Can be traced in the later works of the writer, . though sometimes gets a different direction,
. School friend M. writer Pierre Louis brought him to the Symbolists - representatives of the leading literary movement of the time. In their salons M. acquainted with the largest writers of the era, including the poet StцLphane MallarmцL, from 1891 to 1893. ZH. wrote an essay and two stories in the symbolist manner.
Exempt due to tuberculosis from military service, M. decided to form a company to his friend the artist Paul Albert Laurent in his trip to North Africa in October 1893, and, in the Tunisian town of Sousse, the young man first entered a homosexual relationship. Returning to Europe, F. found that the carnal pleasures, tested them in North Africa, raised his estrangement from the literary society, in which he had recently found spiritual satisfaction. Shortly thereafter, the writer creates the 'Bogs' ( 'Les Paludes', 1895) - a satirical portrait of pretentious regulars symbolic literary salons. By this time M. completely cured of tuberculosis, and in January 1895. returned to North Africa, where in Algiers, Mr.. Biskra acquainted with Oscar Wilde and Lord Alfred Douglas.
In France, the writer returns to the end of 1895, to say goodbye to his dying mother. Shortly after the death of the mother M. married his cousin Madeleine Rondo, which was in love many years. Some critics believe that Madeleine Rondeau, unbending puritanka, replaced the writer's mother. Marriage with Madeleine Rondo was childless (only in 1923. y M. on the relationship with Elizabeth van Ryusselberg daughter was born). A year after marrying F. Laroka becoming mayor, but continues to write, and soon returned to Algeria.
M. first expressed a new understanding of personal liberty 'Viands earth' ( 'Les Nourritures terrestres', 1897) - a book written in prose poetry. In this work the flesh and spirit are in one piece, conventions, habits and principles are discarded for the sake of releasing their own 'I', striving for pleasure and joy. Success at the general reader 'Viands earth' had, in addition, this book was the cause of rupture of the writer with his friends, the Symbolists, who could not accept the fact that M. praises of a hostile reality. However, in the 20-ies. 'Viands earth' became the most famous product of M. and influenced a whole generation of younger writers, including the existentialists Albert Camus and Jean-Paul Sartre.
After 1897. physical and emotional condition M. has deteriorated because of the ongoing struggle between his spiritual aspirations and passions of the flesh. He suffered a difficult break with his wife, who, upon learning that her husband - a homosexual, had gone to their estate in Normandy Kyuvervil. (Since M. often parted with his wife, but until her death in 1938. They were united by spiritual affinity.) In February 1909. Work on the creation of 'Nouvelle Revue Francaise' ( 'Nouvelle Revue Francaise'), who soon became one of the most influential literary journals of the world, without a doubt, helped the writer to overcome severe depression. 'Nouvelle revue' and its offspring Publishers 'Gallimard' in every way to encourage new talent, as well as under the influence of F. published translations of his favorite authors: Dostoevsky, Joseph Conrad, Walt Whitman, Herman Melville.
From 1902 to 1919. ZH. published four small psychological novel, . which he called the 'recit' - 'stories': 'Immoralist' ( 'L'lmmoralist', . 1902), . 'Strait gate' ( 'La Porte etroite', . 1909), . 'Isabella' ( 'Isabelle', . 1911) and 'Pastoral Symphony' ( 'La Symphonic pastorale', . 1919),
. Many critics agree that these novels, in which developed theme of struggle for self-expression of personality, are among the best works of J.
A new stage in the work of M. novelist marked 'dungeons of the Vatican' ( 'Les Caves du Vatican', 1914), a book, a genre where the writer himself, by analogy with the medieval satirical farce, defined as 'sotie'. More complex compositionally and psychologically, than 'recits', 'Caves of the Vatican' is a kind of sarcastic hoax, which tells about the murder for which the killer is only in order to prove his freedom; F. also ridicules bourgeois conformism are Catholics and 'free masons', their hypocrisy. Raised in a devout Protestant family, M. more in 1906. experienced a religious crisis and, like many serious writers, his friends, felt a strong attraction to Catholicism, especially the zealous apostolic Catholicism, poet and dramatist Paul Claudel. However, the 'dungeons of the Vatican' cost F. Friendship with Claudel and triggered a fierce attack on the writer for his secularism.
The huge success of 'Nouvelle Revue Francaise' (which published such distinguished writers as Marcel Proust and Paul ValцLry), as well as the growing popularity of books M. provided him with a complete financial independence. In the 20-ies. True, the writer again attacked, this time by the ruling circles, who claimed that the product M. corrupting youth. In response to this in 1924. writer distributes thousands of copies of 'Corydon' ( 'Sogudon'), an apologia for homosexuality in the form of Plato's dialogues, over which M. began work in 1918, Mr.. Release of 'Corydon', F. acted quite recklessly: he incur the public charges of homosexuality, which is why at one time so hurt by his friend Oscar Wilde. The writer began to avoid even close friends, almost no one raised his voice in his defense. Reputation M. revived only by the end of the 20-ies., when society became more tolerant attitude towards homosexuality.
In July 1925. ZH. accompanied by his friend Mark Alegre went on a long journey to Congo. During this time, out of print a few of his works. 'From tyN' ( 'Numquid et tu.. N ', 1926) is a kind of diary, which he started a decade ago, and which reflected his attitude to religion. This blog is a reflection of the religious crisis, it M. is in search of divine existence and tries to justify its rejection of the idea of guilt. In the same year there in spirit confessional autobiography F. 'If the grain does not die' ( 'Si le Grain ne meurt'), on which work began in 1919. In the 20-ies this essay seemed obscene, but now is considered a high example of autobiographical literature, standing alongside the 'Confessions' Rousseau
'The Counterfeiters' ( 'Les Faux-Monnayeurs'), a novel that M. finished just before his departure to the Congo, was also issued in 1926. ZH. called 'the counterfeiters' his only novel because of the volume and design, he was bigger than all the rest of his artistic works. The novel is different compositional complexity, . which is expressed in unrelated storylines, . in the multiplicity of events occurring simultaneously, . so, . heroes, . attitudes and points of view, . are superimposed on each other and are opposed to each other,
. In this regard, the French critic Jean Ite said: 'There are only two books in which M. tried to put myself to: 'Andre Walter' - in his youth and 'The Counterfeiters' - in his mature years'. Thanks to 'counterfeiters' M. received international recognition, was considered one of the greatest writers of the XX century.
Returning from the Congo in 1927, M. published two travel diaries, which criticized French colonial policies. Over the next ten years, the writer continued to take an active and controversial involvement in politics and public life - for example, supported the Loyalists during the Spanish Civil War, in 1932. suddenly announced his conversion to the communist ideology, and in 1937. the second of two travel essays, written after he dispelled the illusion of a trip to the Soviet Union, said the strong break with communism.
Since 1942. until the end of World War II M. lived in North Africa, where he wrote the story 'Theseus' ( 'Thesee'.
1946), which is imbued with faith in mankind's ability to improve themselves and in the importance of earthly existence, and that M. considered to be his literary testament.
In 1947, Mr.. ZH. was awarded an honorary doctorate from Oxford University. In the same year the writer was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature 'for the deep and meaningful artistic works in which human problems are presented with a fearless love of truth and the profound psychological insight'. In his speech at the awards ceremony Anders Esterling, a member of the Swedish Academy noted that 'M. to a greater extent than any of his contemporaries, was a man of contrasts ... That is why his work gives the impression of continuous dialogue in which faith is constantly struggling with doubt, asceticism - with cheerfulness, and discipline - with the desire for freedom '. The poor state of health did not allow M. arrive at the award ceremony in Stockholm, and his Nobel lecture he gave to the French ambassador in Sweden, Gabriel Pyuo. Expressing gratitude to the Swedish Academy for the award, M. wrote: 'For many years, my voice seemed to me like a voice crying in the wilderness, and later I thought that appeal to very few, but you have shown me today that I was right when he believed in the advantage of a narrow circle of readers ... You filed your voice is not so much for my work, how much for the independent spirit that's in my books, for the spirit, which is today subjected to all sorts of attacks. "
In 1950, Mr.. ZH. issued a final volume of his 'Diary' ( 'Journal'), covering the period from 1939 to 1949,. Many readers will surely agree with Francois Mauriac, who placed above all other works of writer's diaries and autobiographies. O 'Diaries' J., initiated in 1889. and comprised a total of more than a million words, . which affected his whole life, . Enid Starkey, . prominent British expert on French literature, . wrote, . that 'this product - unique in French literature, . Yes, and in literature in general, is a treasure trove of opinions and disputes of any artistic and intellectual about, . on any moral issue over a period of sixty-odd years',
. Paying tribute to Jean, shortly after his death, Sartre wrote: "He never tired of teaching us that we can say anything, if only it was well said '. Thanks M. not faded with the years. In 1980, for example, American scholar A. Leslie Wilson wrote that the reputation of M. 'as one of the greatest writers of our century has only increased over time'.
M. was buried beside his wife in Kyuvervile. 'And now abideth in you' ( 'Et Nunc Manet in Te'), intimate story of family life of the writer, was published in 1951, after the death of M