SACHS Nelly (Sachs Nelly)( German poet Nobel Prize for Literature, 1966)
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Biography SACHS Nelly (Sachs Nelly)
December 10, 1891, Mr.. - May 12, 1970
The German poet Nelly Sachs was born in Berlin and was the only child of William Sax, inventor and industrialist, and Margaret (Carter) Sachs. Nelly grew up in a wealthy Jewish family, was home schooled, and then entered the Berlin preferred secondary school for girls. Shy and quiet, she was fond of music, literature, dancing, and at one time dreamed of becoming a professional ballerina.
. In 15 years, Nellie read a novel by Selma LagerlцTf 'Saga Yeste Berlings', which made her such a strong impression that she wrote a letter to Sweden
. The correspondence that ensued between the W. and LagerlцTf, lasted about 35 years, until the death of the Swedish novelist. At 18 W. began to write poems, mostly about nature and mythological subjects. Some of them were published in literary magazines. Traditional, not only in form, . but the content, . These verses have nothing to do with fashion at the time expressionist literature and, . perhaps, . therefore attracted the attention of Stefan Zweig, . which not only praised them for 'immediacy', . and published one of the poems,
. Later W. not attached much importance to his early poems and did not include them in the collection of works.
At the same time, the beginning of her career, SW. fell in love with a man with whom met at the resort mineral waters, where she vacationed with her parents. Many years later, W. learned of his death in a Nazi concentration camp, and this is reflected in several late poems of the poetess.
At 20 ... 30-ies. Z. still considers himself a professional writer, although her poems are sometimes printed in the 'Berliner Tageblatt' ( 'Berliner Tageblatt') and other newspapers. After his father died in 1930. she and her mother lived a closed life. Three years later, with the advent of Hitler to power in Germany are beginning to grow anti-Semitic, many friends and acquaintances W. disappear. In this anxious time, she enjoys the Jewish and Christian mysticism, the prophecies of the Old Testament, Kabbalah and Hasidism. Until 1938. her poems from time to time appear in Jewish periodicals.
In 1940, when German troops occupied Europe, W. mother with LagerlцTf found refuge in Sweden - in obtaining visas, they were assisted directly by the royal family. Unfortunately, their arrival in Sweden, LagerlцTf was not to wait, and H. the mother first felt in a strange land in complete isolation. At this time, W. studying the Swedish language and earns a living German translations of works by Swedish poets.
Becoming a Swedish citizen, W. responded with his poetry - this 'silent scream' - the destruction of Jews in concentration camps. Her new poems are fundamentally different from the old, romantic.
Unrhymed, concise, full of succinct images, poetry, SW. is an example of modern mystics. The first postwar collection of poems, 'In the chambers of death' ( 'In den Wohnungen des Todes') was published in 1946. in East Germany, followed by the other: 'eclipse stars' (' Sternverdunkelung ', 1949),' And no one knows what to do next '(' Und niemand weiss weiter ', 1957),' The flight and transformation '(' Fluch und Verwandlung ', 1959). 'Her poems are diverse - celebrated English poet and critic Stephen Spender, - and yet all she wrote - one poem'. Its' apocalyptic religious hymns', continued Spender, 'are the embodiment of Jewish identity is so strong, that life is equated with death, and vice versa ...'.
. In the postwar years, Z., in addition to poetry, writing plays and dramatic fragments, called 'stage poetry'
. The hero of her first play 'The Mystery of the sufferings of Israel' ( 'Ein Mysterienspiel vom Leiden Israels', 1951) - street cobbler, who is looking for a German soldier who killed a young Polish shepherdess. 'Mystery' in 1950, Mr.. zapadnogermanskomu broadcast on radio, was placed in Dortmund in 1962. and transferred to the Swedish opera composer Moses Pergament. Known as the play-symbol W. 'Abraham in the salt marshes' ( 'Abram im Salz'), written explanation of the biblical story of King Nimrod, and a young Abraham, which was published in the book 'Signs on the Sand' ( 'Zeichen im Sand', 1962).
After the publication in 1959. 'Escape and transformation' to the NW. finds fame. In 1960, 20 years after her flight from Germany, W. presented the award to Annette von Droste-Hyulshoff, and next year the authorities Dortmund establish annual literary prize of its name and appoint a poet lifetime pension. In 1965, Mr.. Z. awarded the prize of the World Association of West publishers and booksellers, one of the most prestigious literary awards in West Germany.
W. was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature for 'outstanding lyrical and dramatic works, exploring the fate of the Jewish people'. Nobel prize 1964. Z. shared with Agnon. 'In her books with exceptional force sounded tragic voice of the Jewish people ", - said at the awards ceremony, the representative of the Swedish Academy Anders Esterling. Though the book G. talk about the 'awful truth ... of the camps of mass destruction and death factories', continued Esterling, 'the writer is above the hatred of the tormentors'.
'I think - said the G. in reply, - what is happening to me - is a beautiful fairy tale '. 'Agnon represents the State of Israel - and then noticed a poet - and I - the tragedy of the Jewish people'.
After receiving the Nobel Prize AZ, which has never married, still lived and worked in his small apartment in Stockholm. She died after a long illness at the age of 78 years.
Widely recognized W. received for the poetic protest against the destruction of the Jews. 'Her poetry, - said Spender, - taught to know that we must know our history, above all - a nightmare and revival'. 'Nelly Sachs offers its readers an easy consolation - noticed critic Alvin Rosenfeld in the Literary Supplement to the' Times'. - Her poems - a slaughter that is constantly present as a direct experience and the indelible stain in the memory. And yet this terrible experience is transformed into sympathy for all living things
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