ZINGER Isaac Bashevis( The inventor of the sewing machine Singer, the Nobel Prize for Literature, 1978)
Comments for ZINGER Isaac Bashevis
Biography ZINGER Isaac Bashevis
July 14, 1904, Mr.. - July 24, 1991
Polish-born American writer Isaac Bashevis Singer (real name Itsek-Hertz Singer), who wrote in Yiddish, was born in a small village near Warsaw Leotsin. According to one source, the date of his rozhdedeniya - July 14, the other - 26 October. Isaac was the third of four children of Bathsheba (Zilberman) Singer, the daughter of an Orthodox rabbi, and Pinchoz-Mende-To Singer, a rabbi of Hasidic schools. The father followed the mystical Judaism, and his mother for all his piety was skeptical ratsionalistkoy. From father NE. heard stories about angels and demons, but from the mother - family tradition.
When Isaac was four years old, his family moved to Warsaw and settled in the Jewish quarter, where his father was a rabbi, earning his living by service in the Beth Din (Jewish court). In the parish school W. studied the Jewish laws and Jewish Aramaic texts, but in his spare time reading Yiddish books on science, politics and economics, as well as literary classics, especially the works of Russian writers of XIX century. Many of the book gave him an older brother Israel Joshua, a writer, who refused to Hasidism, and is a proponent of modernization of Judaism, its integration into Western culture.
In 1917, Mr.. Z. traveling with his mother in Bilgoraj, in her native village in eastern Poland, which remained almost unchanged since the Middle Ages. Having lived there for 4 years, the boy watched the life of the Jewish shtetl, absorbed his manners and customs. 'I had the opportunity to see the past for what they had - later wrote W. - It seemed time reversing. I lived in Jewish history '.
When in 1920. Father Z. given the post of Rabbi in the Polish town Dzhikuv, the young man convinced the parents to let him go to Warsaw on the condition that he entered the Jewish Theological Seminary and received his spiritual education. However, having studied at the seminary a few months and not long after living with his family in Dzhikuve, W. returns Bilgoraj where he earns his living by the lessons of Hebrew.
In 1923, Mr.. Z. returns to Warsaw, and lived there for 12 years, initially working as a proofreader in the 'literary pages' ( 'Literarische Bletter'), a Jewish literary magazine, edited by his brother Israel Joshua Singer. During these years the young man reads a lot, especially interested in philosophy, physiology, psychology, natural and occult sciences, tries his hand at prose. In 1927, Mr.. in 'Literary sheets' appears first story W. 'In old age' ( 'Oyf der Elter') under the alias Tee. The second story of the young writer's 'Woman' ( 'Vayber') was printed in the next year, signed by Isaac Bashevis (literally: 'the son of Bathsheba'). During the next 5 years SW. continues to write short stories for Jewish newspapers and magazines, and earning a living translating from German into Yiddish crime novels and works of Knut Hamsun, Thomas Mann and Erich Maria Remarque.
In 1932, Mr.. was published novel, Z. brother, Israel Joshua, 'The Sinner', and he was invited to work in the Editor of the New York Jewish newspaper 'Daily Dzhuish forward' ( 'Jewish Daily Forward'). Joshua Israel accepted the invitation and emigrated to the United States, and the younger brother was left without a mentor. Nevertheless, Isaac Bashevis continues to write and in 1933. became deputy editor of the literary magazine 'Globe' ( 'Globus'), which publishes his stories, and later his first novel 'Satan in Goraj' ( 'Der Soten in Goray'), published in the magazine during the 1934. and released in book form in 1943. 'Satan in the mountain ", according to some critics, the best novel of the writer, the author was inspired by memories of days spent in Bilgoraj. In the novel, whose action takes place in the Jewish village of the XVII century., Describes the diabolic witchcraft in a small Hasidic community. This story, as noted English critic Ted Hughes, 'is a capacious metaphor for cultural collapse, which destroyed the spiritual principles of our age, and tossed into the swamp of cynical materialism'.
30-e gg. steel W. time of trial. His wife Runya, a communist, went to the USSR, taking with them their son, Israel. At the same time to power in Germany the Nazis came. Fearing anti-Semitic policies of Hitler, SW. in 1935. leaving Warsaw and goes to his brother in the U.S., where settled in Brooklyn and works of non-staff newspaper 'Daily Dzhuish forward'. During the next ten years, W. experienced a creative crisis, partly caused by poverty, and partly because of cultural disorientation and insecurity, as well as the future of the Yiddish language in the U.S.. Roman 'messianic sinner' ( 'Messiah the Sinner', 1937), which is printed serial production in New York, Warsaw and Paris, he W. considered a failure.
In 1940. Z. marries Alma Wassermann, emigrant from Germany, two years later moved from Brooklyn to West Side (Manhattan), a staff member of the newspaper 'Forward' ( 'Forward'), signing his articles pseudonym Isaac Warsaw. In 1943, Mr.. Z. gets U.S. citizenship, and two years later began to write again.
In 1944, Mr.. in connection with the death of Israel Joshua, which in literary circles at that time was more famous brother, W. again is experiencing a creative crisis. The death of his elder brother he called 'the greatest misfortune' whole life. Nevertheless, in the next year W. begins work on 'Family Moscati' ( 'Di Familye Mushkat'), the first of three social realist novels, which published from 1945 to 1948. the newspaper 'Forward' and talked about the moral disintegration of the Warsaw Jews after the Nazi occupation, Polish troops. Two volume edition of the novel in Yiddish and English one-volume edition appeared almost simultaneously - in 1950
In the same years as a kind of prelude to the 'family Moscato' W. begins to write a work covering the last four decades of the XIX century., a time when the Polish Jews begin to leave the ghetto for the sake of bustling medieval life in modern industrial society. This novel from 1953 to 1955. printed in the newspaper 'Forward', and then translated into English and published two separate books: 'Manor' ( 'The Manor', 1967) and 'Manor' ( 'The Estate', 1969).
When the 'Family Moscati' appeared in English translation, readership W. expanded considerably, and after publication in the journal Partisan Review, 'story' Gimpl-dolt '(' Gimpel Tarn '), translated from Yiddish to the writer Saul Bellow came the recognition. The hero of 'Gimpl-dolt' - the village holy fool, an eccentric who believes everything he is told, and which easily deceived neighbors. 'There is no doubt that our world - this is an imaginary world, - says Gimpl. - But to get into the imaginary world, one must go through the real world '.
At this time, the work W. attract the attention of Cecil Hemli, the editor of Nunda-press', which helps the writer to publish them in reputable American literary magazines. In 1955, Mr.. Publishers' Nunda Press' released in English translation of the novel "Satan in the mountain ', has received positive feedback from critics, but two years later came out and had a very successful first collection of short stories SW. English 'Gimpl-dolt and other stories'.
In the next two decades, W. prints a lot of stories, several novels, four-volume autobiography and a dozen books for children. The protagonist of the novel 'Magician of Lublin' ( 'Der Kunsmakher fun Lublin'), written in 1958. and translated into English in 1960 - a charming 'magician' and red tape, regretful in the end in his numerous transgressions. In the second collection of stories SW. 'Spinoza of Market Street' ( 'Der Spinozisti Dertsey-lung', 1961) include some previously unpublished short stories, which takes place in a Polish ghetto after World War. Affair 'Cuffy' ( 'Knekht', 1962), the history of the Jewish culture of medieval Poland, immediately became a bestseller. When the English translation was published the best, according to critics, a collection of stories SW. 'A friend of Kafka and Other Stories' (' A Friend of Kafka and Other Stories', 1970) and the novel "Shosha '(' Shosha ', 1978), where the writer reiterates the themes of innocence, love and repentance, the credibility of the writer has grown even more .
In 1964, Mr.. Z. becomes the first honorary member of the National Institute of Arts and Letters, who writes not in English. After 5 years, the writer receives the National Book Award for children's literature for autobiographical sketches' Day delights. Stories about a boy growing up in Warsaw '(' Day of Pleasure: Stories of a Boy Growing Up in Warsaw '). When asked why he writes for children, SW. replied that 'children still believe in God, family, angels, devils, witches, goblins ...'.
Nobel Prize in Literature 1978. was awarded to W. 'for the emotional art of narration, which is deeply rooted in Polish-Jewish cultural tradition, however, raises the eternal questions'. The representative of the Swedish Academy called Lara Yyullensten W. 'incomparable storyteller and stylist, and master magician'. Particular reference was made the author's book, which takes place in the Middle Ages. 'It is in the historical works of art W. manifested itself in full, - said Yyullensten. - In the literary pantheon included many of his historical characters: dreamers and the martyrs, and noble personality worthless'.
In his Nobel lecture SW. said that he sees the award as "recognition of Yiddish - the language of exile, language, without land, without frontiers ... language, in which there are no words to express such concepts as' weapon ',' ammunition ',' drill ', "the tactics of fighting"'. 'Yiddish - he continued, noting the ongoing Jewish tradition, a writer - is a wise and humble language frightened, but do not lose hope man.
Critics refer to the works W. different. Calling W. 'simply a writer both in form and content', American scholar Robert Alter refuses to consider him a modern writer. For Ted Hughes' main theme of modernism is the relation of man to God. 'Z., - noticed Hughes - raises his nation to a symbol and as a result of not writing about Jews, but about a man in relationship with God'. According to the American literary critic Richard Bergina, clarity of prose W. in conjunction with its metaphysical and epistemological roots with its twin the writers of the modernist orientation, as Franz Kafka and Jorge Luis Borges.
Who opened the West. American researcher Irving Howe points out, however, and some weaknesses of the writer: 'In its topics SW. no equal, . but he repeated, . playing the same tune again and again ... ' If one of the reviewers, . John Simon, . draws attention to the endless repetition in the books Z., . else, . John Gross, . admires the consummate skill of the narrator, . which has 'no weaknesses'.,
. 'When I was a boy, and told different stories, called me a liar, - recalled SW
. In an interview a few years after receiving the Nobel Prize. - Now I'm a writer. Step forward, of course, great, but it's the same '. 'If the experience is not shared, to whom this experience is needed', - concluded the writer.
Busker and adventurer. Mechanic and eccentric. Three wives, four mistresses, 22 children. We can say, even 23. About the latter - a sewing machine Singer - Mahatma Gandhi said: "One of the few useful things invented by mankind". Add: the thing is so useful that it was sewn, and continue to sew more than a hundred million people in 67 countries.
Isaac Singer had been grown hooligan. In twelve years he ran away from home, having just get his antics population of the small town Pittston (New York), including their own parents. Another would. Are the sons of decent people transplanted onions on a neighbor's garden upside down, . dogs dressed up in uniforms and pririsovyvayu t curves zeros to utaschennym father banknotamN A passion for pudding litsedeystvuN to attach it to a respectable family business - repairing carts, . - And he pulled me on the neck and rim with the yoke recites, . swinging a hammer: "... humble eh under the blows of fate il have to resist ...",
. Revolt against any order was a boy in the blood
. Humility is not included in some of his habits. In 1833, twelve years after birth, Isaac finished his education, left school, ran away from home and sent his foot in Rochester, a city on the shore of Lake Ontario. There hooligan settled apprentice to a local mechanic, quickly mastered, and perhaps would be a decent specialist, if one does not prefer the garage pit the stage.
. For a provincial tour of America in those days anyone, even the most impoverished, troupe became an event like the fall of the meteorite
. In a measured routine life, where the biggest social event was a Sunday sermon, suddenly burst into strange people with burning eyes and unusual intonations. They knew how to depict all: the hopeless despair and desperate optimism, terrible jealousy and genuine fun. They might even die on the stage so believable that the audience sobbing. Their repertoire was varied to the absurd - from Shakespeare's Hamlet to the banal farce called "Pop-drunkard.
Isaac Singer, an actor manners Huck Finn. The whole life of the little boy turned to the theater. And some distinguished citizen of the next town, through which his company happened to pass, years later told a visiting theater of their children and grandchildren. This was a real glory, which so wished young Isaac.
For twenty years of theatrical activity Singer bored. And in the early Forties he settled in the city Frideriksburge (Ohio), found a job at a woodworking factory and settled down. Somewhere in the day for three or four. Then he was tired. Very soon he became sick of wooden bars, and he himself felt like a hefty chump, standing at the machine.
But not to the same airs again. In this man's age. And bored Isaac invents woodworking machine. Machine are in demand, so that by 1849 Singer manages to earn her some money, which can be fed from Ohio to the East, in New York.
In New York on his path of life caught publisher George Sieber. Whether publishing business with a new friend was not important whether the temperament and drive Singer played a role, but Isaac was able to infect its patented machine, manufacture by concessionaires decide in Boston.
. The whim of fate office, which they rented, located in the workshop some Orson Phelps, not too successful manufacturer of sewing machines
. Contrary to expectations, Singer and Sieber, people somehow do not buy up crashing their machines: it must be that Bostonians were more interesting things than carving. Friends languished in his office from idleness and missed.
The first broke Sieber. Depressed and grind out the clock useless piece of wood. Singer was mentally stronger. From nothing to do Isaac studied device Phelps sewing machines and even joked over the melancholy partner, arguing that the severe form of the syndrome of Pope Carlo.
As time passed, even inexhaustible zingerovskogo love of life came to an end. Not to mention the money. Its capital Singer spent a long time, although lean Sieber was still a small zanachka. Then one day he knocked on the regular The bar on the machine and said:
- All road. I give you forty bucks - wondering what you want. But bear in mind - this is the last money I give to you.
Ten days. Friends hardly seen. Isaac worked feverishly. He decided to improve the sewing machine Phelps. Typewriter was a rather awkward construction, patented by some J. Leroy and P. Blodgett. She could do no more than a dozen in a row of stitches, then had to remove the fabric and start sewing at first. The thread constantly tangled and twisted. Stitch could only straight. Neither of which bends it even come.
Despite the huge potential demand, the fate of this invention evolved unfortunately. First patented in the United States sewing machine was invented in 1846 by Elias Houe, but unleash his invention in America, he failed and he went to try his luck in England. Alas, there was waiting for the engineer fail.
. In 1849, without a penny in my pocket Houe returned to the States and with astonishment found, . that during his absence have been patented two models of sewing machines, . which, although they had some new properties, . but represented a pure plagiarism,
. Houe sued the famous and began the process that became known as "war of sewing machines". The process lasted until right up to 1854.
Singer, who saw the first sewing machine a few months ago (in 1850), and no idea what the field of dramatic battles, he comes. He only knew that at the end of the tenth day and the fortieth of the dollar the world should see a new sewing machine, which really knows how to sew.
. After analyzing all the design flaws of previous models, Isaac clearly understood how to fix them
. He changed the device: first, . arranged shuttle horizontally (the thread is no longer entangled), . secondly, . designed a table-board for the fabric and the leg-holder (it is possible to make a continuous suture), . and thirdly, . set foot pedal, . rightly judging, . that extra hand seamstress does not hurt.,
. On the eleventh day of creative suffering before zonked Sieber and Phelps appeared she - beautiful and hard-working
. Thus was born the new company for the production of sewing machines: Singer-Sieber-Phelps
. Success was not long to wait. The first big order came in late 1850. Factory in sewing shirts in New Haven ordered a batch of 30 machines at $ 100 each. By the summer of 1851 the company grew, its turnover increased several times. However, like any other company that made sewing machines, Singer had to deal with rampant Elias Houe, who could not reconcile himself with the thought that someone else can make a machine on a different principle.
. At this critical moment unlucky Phelps decides to leave the game, . and owned a third of the shares transferred to the well-known lawyer, Edward Clark, . who in return promises not only to advise the company for 20 years, . but also invests in its development of its own funds.,
. In the autumn of that year, the stage descends and Sieber
. He sells his share of Singer and Clark. The result was one of the strangest and at the same time the most successful tandems in the history of business: restless, visionary, podryvatel foundations Singer and balanced, prudent, cautious Clark.
. Clark was ultra-conservative son of famous industrialist
. He received an excellent education, which, however, to give up the dense ignorance partner. Aristocratic Edward was horrified - even in his declining years Singer did not really know how to read and write. A really unbelievable turns personal life son of a wagon master general, defy description.
Nevertheless, the advantages outweigh the Singer sewing machine numerous imperfections of its author. And Clark put all their talents to a lawyer, an organizer and advocate for the company to develop and thrive. His first step was the neutralization of the court bore Houe. Clark suggested a brilliant solution, which was approved by a kind of "joint patent", which included Houe, Singer and two other inventors. The court ordered all the other manufacturers of sewing machines to pay $ 15 for each machine until the expiration of a "Joint Patent". These revenues are four inventors divided equally between a. Friendship won.
It is time to untwist sewing machines. In the early years the bulk of products bought Singer sewing factory. For the ordinary man it was too expensive. It could not be - a sewing machine cost $ 125, and the average annual family income was $ 500. Clark has developed a flexible system of selling cars to individuals. It included the purchase of cars in installments, not only zingerovskih, but machines of competitors. He has introduced a network of sales agents and, most importantly, has launched a strong export. The fruits of this expansion has exceeded all expectations. At sunset century agents Singer began to take even the most traditional and conservative areas. All newspapers spared picture of Indian women in national dress Seminole tribe, bent over a sewing machine "Singer".
. Company "Singer" was included in business history as the first company spent more than a million dollars a year on advertising
. Career as an actor was not in vain - Isaac Singer was able to perform any role and capture the imagination of any client. During the Civil War, he sang patriotic oratorio. "We are putting the army" - read the new colorful ads, but the machinery itself and constantly improved.
. Singer has never been a snob and loved to spend time together with the boys, apprentices, not denying myself the pleasure of scratching his tongue and witty
. In his presence, all argue. It happened to someone gape, sounded sarcastic voice of Isaac: "Well, John, zashivaeshsyaN.
Meanwhile, in 1870 the number of machines produced exceeded 127 thousand, and their cost could significantly reduce. At the same time destroying all Singer used cars to avoid saturation of the market and prevent sales decline and prices fall too much. Across the country, opened a new factory. Things were going well.
What is better the affairs of the company, the more indulged willful its creator. Life's founding father never had the ordering. The first marriage he was married to a seamstress Catherine Heley, who bore him two children.
. But seeing the scene of one of Baltimore Theater (where he happened to play in "Romeo and Juliet") eighteen Mary Ann Sponsler, passionate Isaac decisively changed their destiny
. Dying in the course of the play, he crept quietly behind the scenes at the first opportunity and rushed to find my Juliet. It took time to search a little bit - one evening. He learned how to call a young beauty, and was quick to shock her cheap pun like "Miss Sponsler, you do not need sponsorN."
Mary, who, like every eighteen Mary, looking great and pure love, was struck. It was this and sought Isaac. The shock was his favorite method. Further was the work of theatrical craftsmanship. Less than a month later they became de facto husband and wife. Well before the official registration of marriage, this Singer decided not to hurry.
During the next fourteen years, Mary meekly believe the terrible stories about the villain-wife, who does not divorce. They signed couple, Singer, had a joint bank account in the amount of several dollars, in poverty and were happy. Sponsoring here and do not smell, poverty lomilas into all the cracks of their family nest.
Mary started taking her husband's acting lessons. They have already learned a couple more pesok and performed under the aliases of Mr. and Mrs. Merritt. In addition, they gave birth. On the same day that Singer presented to the friends, associates her first sewing machine, Mary gave birth to their offspring as the tenth. When Singer became rich and bought a luxury apartment on Fifth Avenue, the former (but still formal) Mrs. Catherine Singer was completely forgotten and huddled in a rented room somewhere on the outskirts of Brooklyn.
. Singer divorced from Katherine in 1860, 24 years after rupture
. But if Mary Sponsler thought that came her finest hour, she was sadly mistaken. Several months later, going down Fifth Avenue, she was unpleasantly surprised to see in the next carriage, her husband, holding in the arms of some person named Mary Makgonial. This Mary was not at random coupling Singer. Very soon the first, Mary learned that Isaac had secretly lived with her for many years and she managed quietly to the public to bear him five. But there is no blessing in disguise - exposed Singer still married Sponsler.
But the game went on, and the happiness was short-lived. Even after some time, both with Mary surprised to learn about the parallel existence of their third namesake - Mary Walter, the mother of another little Singer, which was coded under the name of Merritt. It was too much. Punctilious Clark finally allowed myself to remind companion on the norms of civilized society, . about monogamy and much more, . then suggested that Singer temporarily settle in Europe and lead the company out, . to hush up the scandal and did not give a bad reputation of the inventor to influence the affairs of the company.,
. Mrs. Sponsler, taking advantage of the absence of the defendant, immediately started a divorce process, sued $ 8000 - an amount unheard of and unbelievable
. As it went through zingerovskaya luxurious suburban villa. A month later, Mary married secretly in a kind of John Foster, but kept the marriage a closely guarded secret, since he revoked her divorce successes and her right to the villa.
But retribution caught up with her a couple of months. Mary fell from his chair, broke his leg, and considering that he was dying, shared with the elder daughter of the secret of his new marriage, apparently not wanting to carry her to the grave. By misfortune, the husband of her daughter worked for the company, which bears the modest name "Singer".
Mr. Singer immediately learned of the treachery of his former wife and sued his property back. Mary stayed with Foster. And without the villa.
In 1865, Mr.. Singer met his last love in the face of a young Frenchwoman Isabelle Sommerville, who soon became his next wife. Life has become sort of stability - at least by the standards of Singer. Most of the time he spent in Europe, entertaining the bride all sorts of extravagant projects. Since the two-ton vehicles, designed for 31 passengers, equipped bedroom and kitchen, to the sumptuous palace of the British Isles in the Greco-Roman style, worth 500 thousand dollars, which he modestly christened Wigwam. This wigwam in 1875. ornate and broke the thread of life of Isaac Singer.
After his death in different locations around the world has announced five heirs, and the total number of children reached twenty-two - three wives and four concubines. Numerous descendants of Singer spinning in high society. His son, Paris has become famous dizzying romance with Isadora Duncan, who bore him a son of Patrick. A recent widow Singer Isabelle is the prototype of the famous statue of Liberty in New York. Her enemies called her "the Statue of Liberty morals.
"When you die, I will be your sewing machine twist". So Corneille Ivanovich Chukovsky wrote in his book "Between two and five" talking a little boy with his grandmother in the middle of this century. By the time the world no longer conceive of themselves without the sewing machine in every home. It is no longer a luxury, but became a livelihood. After the death of Singer's machine continued to spin. Turnovers grown. The cost of machinery declined fivefold. A faithful Edward Clark continued to be the guardian angel of the company until his death in 1882. By 1891 it was released more than half a million cars. "Singer" has become a huge corporation with subsidiaries worldwide.
. True, the Russian revolution of 1917 caused the company considerable damage: loss of 100 million rubles, of which, after a compelling reminder that the Soviet Government has reimbursed the three
. But what does the world revolution, as compared with the sewing machine?
|mr for ZINGER Isaac Bashevis
|Pochemu bylo by ne pomestit 'fotografiyu samogo Isaaka Bashevic? A to neposvyaschennye mogut i zaputat'sya: fotografiya izobretatelya shveinoi mashinki, a rasskazyvaetsya o laureate nobelevskoi premii po literature. Neuvyazochka poluchaetsya!:)
|Matan for ZINGER Isaac Bashevis
|Gentlemen Do not you think that you two Singer (writer and inventor of the sewing machine), who lived, by the way, in different centuries, made a monster:), well-rounded longevity? Sincerely, Matan Goldanov
|Alex for ZINGER Isaac Bashevis
|Quite different about Singer is written here www.prazdniki.ru turns you write about two different Singer! Sewing machine invented by Isaac Merritt Singer.