William Butler Yeats (Yeats William Butler)( Irish poet and playwright, Nobel Prize for Literature, 1923)
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Biography William Butler Yeats (Yeats William Butler)
June 13, 1865, Mr.. - 28 January 1939
William Butler Yeats (Yates), Irish poet and playwright, was born in Dublin and was the eldest of four children. His father, John Butler Yeats, the son of a Protestant clergyman, was preparing for a career lawyer, but became an artist. Mother, nee Susan Polleksfen, impressionable, reserved woman, came from a family of wealthy merchants and shipowners of Sligo, towns in the west of Ireland.
Primary J. received in London's Hammersmith, where he moved from Ireland, his father, to continue classes in painting. Mediocre student, moreover, feels a strange big city, TH. liked to spend summer holidays in the mother's parents' home in Sligo, 'in the most expensive place for me on earth', as he wrote later, poet. Love to Sligo manifested itself in many poems, I., and in his autobiographical novel 'John Sherman' ( "John Sherman", 1891).
In 1880, Mr.. Yeats returned to Ireland, and from 16 to 18 years, William Butler attends a secondary school in Dublin, and then, having shown an interest in painting, continuing education in art school 's Metropolitan Cheek art'. Poems young man begins to write in 1882, Mr.. influenced by Spencer and Shelley, the first poem begins with the poet appeared three years later in 'Dublin University Review' ( "Dublin University Review"). In the same year, J. participates in the creation of Dublin alchemical society, dealing with the occult sciences, which the poet would be interested in life. Two years later, convinced that the artist will not pour out, J. leaves art school and his family moved in 1887, Mr.. in London, and two years later, in 1889, published his first book 'Wanderings of Ossian and other poems' ( "The Wanderings of Oisin and Other Poems"). Poem 'Wanderings Ossian', occupies a major place in the collection, inspired by the motives of Irish mythology, folk art.
From the outset, TH. seeks to develop a philosophical and aesthetic system in which there would be no conflict between art and nature, to explain their own contradictions to what he called 'the continuity of existence'. In its desire to awaken the consciousness of the Irish poet, influenced by William Blake, Friedrich Nietzsche and Emanuel Swedenborg. Favorite genre of the young poet was a poetic drama. In this genre the first play written by J. 'The Countess Cathleen' ( "The Countess Cathieen", 1892) - history of a noble Irish, who sells his soul to save their farmers from starvation. 'The Countess Cathleen', . and 'Kathleen, . daughter Huliena '( "Cathleen m Houlihan", . 1902), . best play J., . focused Maud Gonn, . famous actress, . Beauty, . public figure, . fought for the independence of Ireland, . which the poet met in 1889,
. Deep, complex feelings for Maud Gonn inspired J. the creation of many wonderful lyrical poems.
Important role in the poet's life has played another woman, Lady August Gregory, the widow of the military, a member of the Protestant League gentry, in which J. joined in 1896. Lady Gregory was a prominent figure of the Irish Literary Revival, . playwright, . compiler of collections of Irish folk tales in their own treatment, . brilliant expert on Irish life, . its traditions and customs, . especially admired J., . who often stayed in Kula, . her estate in County Galway.,
. In 1896, Mr.
. Paris J. acquainted with the young Irish playwright John Millington Singh, recognized in the then little-known, who needs a lyrical writer and dramatic gift, and persuaded to return to Ireland and live among the Irish peasantry. Friendship J. and Singh, their co-operation changed the whole course of Irish literature. Inspired J., Singh wrote a few unusually colorful pieces to their living spoken language and the meticulous compositions in turn had a profound impact on the creativity of the J. The collection of poems "In the seven woods' (" In the Seven Woods ", 1903), there is clearly a transition from the loftiness' Celtic romanticism 'earlier books ц+. a more restrained style of conversation.
During these years, J., Synge and Lady Gregory actively participated in the creation of the Irish National Theater and in 1906. led the Abbey Theater of Dublin. At this time, J. combines organizational work in the theater fund-raising, essays and plays, continues to write poetry in 1914. published a collection of software ц+. 'Responsibility' ( "Responsibilities"), became a turning point in the evolution of the poet in 1913. in a letter to his father, who emigrated to New York, J. wrote 'I've been working on self-expression, try to make the language of my books was both natural and elevated - to read aloud felt the presence of a person thinks and feels. "
At 10 ... 20-ies. in England and Ireland in the name of J. mentioned along with such literary luminaries as Oscar Wilde, James Joyce and Ezra Pound, autumn 1913. Pound works unofficial secretary J. and also edits the translations of Japanese plays 'Ney', where there is a sophistication in the collection of plays ц+. "Four plays for dancers' (" Four Plays for Dancers ", 1921).
During the Irish Rebellion of 1916. J. was in England, heroism, sacrifice, the rebels have made a tremendous impression on him, but the poet was shocked by the brutality and the limitations of those who spoke on behalf of Ireland. The following collection of 'Wild Swans in Kula' ( "The Wild Swans at Coole", 1919) J. 'focuses on people and on those actions, which manifests their personality' - wrote an Irish literary critic Denis Donahue. 'His poems address us directly to our sense of responsibility ... J. recognizes the human limitations and attempts, as far as possible, to come to terms with it ', concludes Donahue.
A year later, J. becomes a senator of the newly established Irish Free State, and in 1923. receives a Nobel Prize for Literature 'for the inspired poetry that conveys a highly artistic form of the national spirit'. The representative of the Swedish Academy Per Halstrem, calling J. 'the central figure of the Celtic Revival', remarked: "He achieved what few poets can only remain in touch with their people, while being exquisite artist '.
. In his Nobel lecture 'The Irish drama' ( "The Irish Dramatic Movement") J
. recalled for what purpose was created the Abbey Theater of Dublin. Noting that the life of the Irish peasantry has always remained for him a source of inspiration, the poet said: 'We were suddenly opened the ancient world with its rampant imagination and love of entertaining stories and strong men and beautiful women'. The lecture J. gave also a tribute to his countrymen Shingu, . who died in 1909, . and Lady Gregory: 'When I got out of the hands of your King high award of the Swedish Academy, . I thought, . that the right of me would have to be a young man, . whose long no longer alive, . the left - a woman old age, . which, . fortunately, . is in good health '.,
. Last 15 years of life J
. enjoyed the glory of the national Irish poet. Despite frequent illness, . these years he created works, . marked great passion, . exceptional skill and imagination: these are collections of 'The Tower' ( "The Tower", . 1928) and 'spiral staircase and Other Poems' ( "The Winding Stair and Other Poems", . 1933),
. In 1917, Mr.. J. married a young Englishwoman Georgiana Hyde-Lees, they had two children. Wife helped the poet to work on the book 'The Vision' ( "Vision", 1925, reprint 1937), a mystical interpretation of history and psychology. During these years, J. travels a lot - the United States, France, Italy, Mallorca, which is reflected in the later poems of the poet, will enforce its authority.
And. died after a short illness in the village of Cap-Martin, . on the French Riviera, . he arrived, . to escape from the harsh winter of the Irish, . and was buried in ROQUEBRUNE, . in 1948, . in accordance with the will of the poet, . expressed in his poetic testament poem 'Under Ben-Bulbenom' ( "Under Ben Bulben"), . J remains,
. were transported to Ireland and buried in Dramkliffe, under Sligo.
In addition to the Nobel Prize, TH. received honorary degrees from King's College, Belfast, Dublin Trinity College. Oxford and Cambridge Universities. Annual International Summer School in Sligo named Yeats, established in 1960, aims to study his works.
According to most critics, TH. is the most important Irish poet and mc. Eliot called it, even 'the greatest poet of our time ...'. I. biographer, the American researcher Richard Ellmann, wrote: 'Through devotion to his vocation and rejection of serene life for which he was by age and merit had every right, J. lived several lives, inseparable from the development of poetry and the formation of modern man '. Irish poet Seamus Heaney in his lecture in 1978. said: 'Above all, J. reminds us that art is created by God and that without the development of the arts of civilization can not
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