November 7, 1913, Mr.. - January 4, 1960
. French essayist, novelist and playwright Albert Camus
was born in Mondovi, Algeria, in the family agricultural worker Lucien Camus
, Alsace-born, who died of the Marne during World War II, when Albert
was less than a year
. Shortly thereafter, his mother, nee Catherine Sintes, illiterate women of Spanish origin, had a stroke, in which she became polunemoy. Family K. moved to Algeria, to his grandmother and uncle with a disability, and to feed the family, Catherine was forced to work as a servant. Despite the extremely difficult childhood, Albert
is not in on itself, and he admired the amazing beauty of the North African coast, which could not complete odds with killing boy. Children's experiences left a deep imprint in my soul to. - A man and artist.
Great influence on K. helped his high school teacher, Louis Germain, who, recognizing the ability of his pupil, provided him with full support. With Germain Albert
succeeded in 1923. enter the Lyceum, where interest in the study combined a young man with a passionate enthusiasm for sports, especially boxing. However, in 1930. K. tuberculosis, which permanently prevented him to play sports. Despite his illness, the future writer had to change a lot of professions, to pay for tuition at the Faculty of Philosophy University of Algiers. In 1934, Mr.. K. married Simone iye, which happened morfinistkoy. Together they spent no more than a year, and in 1939. divorced officially.
After completion of the works of Saint Augustine and the Greek philosopher barrage to. in 1936. received a Masters of Philosophy, but the academic career of a young scientist prevent an outbreak of tuberculosis, and K. in graduate school does not remain.
After retiring from the university, K. therapeutic purposes has taken a journey in the French Alps and is the first time in Europe. Impressions from the trip to Italy, Spain, Czechoslovakia and France were first published book writer 'Iznanka face' ( 'L'Envers et 1'endroit', 1937), a collection of essays, which included the recollections of his mother, grandmother, uncle. In 1936, Mr.. K. begin work on his first novel 'The happy death' ( 'La Mort heureuse'), which was released only in 1971
Meanwhile, in Algeria to. already considered the leading writers and intellectuals. Theatrical activity (K. was an actor, playwright, director), he combines these years with the work in the newspaper 'The Republican Algeria' ( 'Alger Republicain') as a political reporter, book editor and browser. A year after the release of the second book of the writer 'Marriage' ( 'Noces', 1938) K. moved permanently to France.
During the German occupation of France to. takes an active part in the resistance movement, working in an underground newspaper 'The Battle' ( 'Le Comat'), published in Paris. In addition to this fraught with serious danger to the activities. working on the completion of the novel 'outsider' ( 'L'Etranger', 1942), which he began back in Algeria, and which brought him international fame. The story is an analysis of alienation, meaninglessness of human existence. The hero of the story - a kind of Meursault, who was destined to become a symbol of existential anti-hero, refuses to adhere to the conventions of bourgeois morality. Of having committed 'absurd', that is devoid of any motive, the murder of Meursault is sentenced to death - a hero to. dies, for it is not shared universally accepted norms of behavior. Dry, detached style of narration (which, according to some critics, is native to. with Hemingway) further underlines the horror of what is happening.
. For 'outsiders', . having a huge success, . followed by a philosophical essay 'The Myth of Sisyphus' ( 'Le Mythe de Sisyphe', . 1942), . where the author compares the absurdity of human existence with the difficulty of the mythical Sisyphus, . doomed to wage a constant struggle against the forces, . which can not cope,
. Rejecting the Christian idea of salvation and the afterlife, which gives meaning to 'Sisyphean' rights to. paradoxically finds meaning in the struggle itself. Salvation, according to K., is the daily work, the meaning of life - at work.
After the war, to. while continuing to work in the 'Battle', which now becomes the official daily newspaper. However, political differences between right and left, drove K., who considered himself an independent radical, in 1947. leave the newspaper. In the same year he published a third novel, the writer, 'The Plague' ( 'La Reste "), the history of the plague in the Algerian city of Oran, in a figurative sense, however,' The Plague '- it is the Nazi occupation of France and, increasingly, a symbol of death and evil. The topic of the universality of evil and devoted to 'Caligula' ( 'Caligula', 1945), the best, in the unanimous opinion of critics, the play writer. 'Caligula', which is based on the book Suetonius 'Twelve Caesars about life', is considered a significant milestone in the history of the theater of the absurd.
As one of the leading figures in postwar French literature, K. at this time is close friends with Jean-Paul Sartre. However, the ways to overcome the absurdity of existence in Sartre and K. do not coincide, and in the early 50-ies. a result of serious ideological differences to. broke with Sartre and existentialism, which was considered the leader of Sartre. In 'rebellious man' ( 'L'Homme revolte', 1951) K. examines the theory and practice of protest against the authorities over the centuries, criticizing the dictatorial ideologies, including communism and other forms of totalitarianism, which impinge on the freedom and, consequently, on human dignity. While still in 1945. K. said that he had 'too little in common with the now fashionable philosophy of existentialism, whose findings are false', it is the negation of Marxism led to a break to. with promarksistski configured Sartre.
In 50-ies. K. continues to write essays, plays, prose. In 1956, Mr.. writer produces an ironic story 'The Fall' ( 'La Chute'), in which the repentant judge Jean Baptiste Klamans confessed to their crimes against morality. Addressing the theme of guilt and remorse, K. widely used in 'The Fall' Christian symbolism.
In 1957. K. was awarded the Nobel Prize 'for his great contribution to the literature, highlight the importance of the human conscience'. Presenting the award to the French writer, Anders Esterling, a representative of the Swedish Academy noted that 'philosophical views to. born in the acute contradiction between the acceptance of earthly existence and recognize the realities of death '. In reply to. said that his work is based on the desire to 'avoid the blatant lies and resist oppression. "
When K. received the Nobel Prize, he was only 44 years old and in his own words, has reached artistic maturity in the writer's creative plans are extensive, as evidenced by entries in the notebooks and the memories of friends. However, these plans went awry: in early 1960. writer was killed in a road accident in southern France.
While creativity to. caused his death lively debate, many critics consider it one of the most significant figures of his time. K. showed alienation and disillusionment of the postwar generation, but persistently searched for a way out of the absurdity of modern existence. The writer was criticized heavily for the rejection of Marxism and Christianity, but nevertheless his influence on modern literature can not be questioned. In his obituary, published in the Italian newspaper 'Evening Courier' ( 'Corriere della sera'), Italian poet Eugenio Montale wrote that 'nihilism K. does not exclude hope, does not relieve a person from dealing with the complex problem: how to live and die with dignity '.
According to the American scholar Susan Sontag, 'To Prose. devoted not so much of his heroes, how many issues of guilt and innocence, responsibility and nihilistic indifference '. Assuming that creativity to. not 'is neither high art nor the depth of thought', Sontag argues that 'it works very nicely completely different kind of moral beauty'. English critic A. Alvarez takes the same view, calling to. 'moralist, who succeeded in raising ethical issues to philosophical'.