Giosue Carducci( Italian poet and critic Nobel Prize for Literature, 1906)
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Biography Giosue Carducci
July 27, 1835, Mr.. - 16 February 1907
Italian poet and critic Giosue Carducci was born in Val di Castello, in the north-west of Tuscany. He was the eldest of three children, Michele Carducci, a physician and Carbonaro member of the secret nationalist organization that operated in Italy shortly before its unification. Because the political views, cool temperament and a pronounced anti-clericalism of not contributing to the popularity of Dr. Carducci among conservative people of Tuscany, his family often had to move from place to place. Eventually Carducci Boleri settled in the south of Livorno, where he spent nine years. Due to the outbreak of revolution in Italy, but also because of the hot temperament Carducci, Sr. family in 1848 and 1849. three times had to change residence.
In 1849, Mr.. Carducci moved to Florence, where Giosuц¬, which until then taught his father, goes to high school, is under the auspices of religious Piarist. It seems that home education was good, because the first boy passed the exams successfully. The school,. I read a lot, fond of the classics and such Italian writers of the XIX century. as Alessandro Manzoni, whose novel 'The Betrothed' very fond of, as well as the poetry of Byron and Schiller. During this time he himself began to write poems on historical themes, converts the ninth song 'Iliad', composed satirical poems to their classmates and teachers, and lyric poems such as 'my mother' ( "A mia madre").
In 1851, Mr.. My father. becomes a medical officer in Celle. Provincial atmosphere of this town was not conducive to the development of the young intellect, and K. do what rehearsed patriotic songs with the village boys. Influenced by his father, who shortly before that, changing his political beliefs, re-adopted Catholicism, K. wrote odes St. Elizabeth and John the Baptist.
In 1853, Mr.. K. received a scholarship to the prestigious Graduate School of Pisa. But a year later after receiving a young man discovered that teachers are too pedantic, and training programs become obsolete. The main advantage of training in Pisa had the opportunity to participate in the literary circle, of which a historian Ercole Scaramuccia. When Scaramuccia died, K. delivered a memorial speech in which he extolled his friend as a true patriot, izbegnuvshego 'Lamentations and fruitless dreams' supporters of the unity of Italy. Attacks on supporters of the poet's association of Italy, which until recently belonged to himself, - a typical example of how often changed over the life of his political views.
In 1854, Mr.. My father. reaffirmed the reputation of a man, is not in possession, rude Mayor Celle, for which he was convicted of indecent assault and was forced to leave his post and become a simple low-paid surgeon in Pyankastagnayo. Finding themselves without financial support. K., . to earn a living, . is a collection of 'People's harp anthology of religious, . of moral and patriotic poems of the Italian poets' ( "L'arpa del popolo, . scelta di poemi religiosi, . morali e patnotici ", . 1855), . the main purpose of the collection to,
. seen in the raising of moral and patriotic spirit of its readers.
. Simultaneously, he wrote articles for the magazine 'Appendix' ( "L'appendice"), . edited his friend Pietro THOIRY, . and soon became a leading figure among the united around the 'Applications' Writers, . which seek to protect the classics of Italian poetry, because, . what they called 'corrupting influence of Romanticism',
. After graduating from school to Pisa
. teaches high school in the small town of San Miniato al Tedesco, . but its aggressive anti-clericalism and absurdity led, . that he soon received a reprimand from the minister of education and lost hope to take a place in Arezzo, . expected by,
. K. moved to Florence in 1857. released his first collection of poetry 'Rhymes' ( "Rime"), in 1880, Mr.. reissued under the title 'Youthful Poems' ( "Juvenilia") Traditional in form, these sonnets and ballads are distinguished by deep patriotic feelings and lack of romantic loftiness.
1857 and 1858 were difficult years for K. Due to lack of work, he was pressed for money, moreover, in these years he had suffered severe shock in 1857. suicide of his brother, Dante, and a year later his father passed away. Soon, however, fate smiled at him, and in 1859, Mr.. poet marries Elvira Menikuchchi, . a year gets a place of the Greek language teacher at the Faculty of Graduate School in Pistoia, . a few months later became a professor of Italian literature at the University of Bologna, . that allows him to live comfortably and support a family 'wife, . son and three daughters,
. At the University of Bologna poet spent most of the rest of your life.
In early 1860-ies. K. actively involved in the republican movement, which is why in 1863. briefly loses seats in the university, and in 1867, Mr.. - Just does not lose the chair. Not been in vain and the publication of the poem to the most scandalous. 'For Satan' ( "Inno a Satana", 1865). It is pantheistic and anti-clerical work celebrates the victory of human reason and progress over the tyranny of Christian theology. A year after the publication of the poem to. was elected a member of Parliament from the Republican Party, but for a number of formal circumstances to carry out their duties could not.
In 1878, Mr.. K. publishes the first of three volumes of 'barbaric odes' ( "Odi barbare", 1878 ... 1889), which tries to catch the spirit of antiquity, imitation of the rhythmic structure of the Greek and Latin poetry. 'Barbaric Odes' with the prevailing in their historical theme, as well as more lyrical 'New Poems' ( "Rime nuove", 1861 ... 1887) are the best, most skilled in his work. Among the well-known poetry collections to. also include 'Light and serious' ( "Levia gravia", 1861 ... 1871), 'iambic and epody' ( "Giambi ed epoch", 1867 ... 1879) and 'Grammar' ( "Rime e ritmi" , 1899), the latter collection, according to critics, is slightly inferior to the previous. In the best poems to. there is a profound, if somewhat alienated vision of the continuity of human existence. Regardless of whether or not his poems the ancient forms of poetry, or the size of a traditional Italian verse, the poet seeks to avoid the romantic loftiness, his poems are sustained in the strict classical style.
Despite the fact that the reputation of K. always been based primarily on his poetic creativity, which he regarded almost as a religious rite, his poetic heritage is relatively small. Of the thirty volumes of collected works to the. poems occupy all four volumes. For the most part he wrote monographs and essays, scientific and polemical nature on a variety of topics from literature to politics.
. In the last years of his life K., who was also a brilliant orator, was considered the national poet of Italy, enjoyed the reputation of the educated man of his time
. In 1890, Mr.. he became a senator - in part because of his literary reputation, and partly because of changing political views:
in old age the poet became a monarchist, a supporter of ekspansonistskoy Italy's policy in Africa.
Candidacy to. the Nobel Prize 1906. was indisputable, as the list of candidates, he was listed in 1902. The poet was awarded the prize "not only for in-depth knowledge and critical mind, but primarily for the creative energy, freshness of style and lyrical force, which is so characteristic of his poetic masterpieces."
In his speech, SD. VIDC, a member of the Swedish Academy, correlated to the biography. with a history of political life in Italy. 'Paganism' C., in his opinion, was a reaction to the costs of Catholicism, but not a rejection of Christianity. 'K. - An educated historian and writer, nourished by the ancient literature, as well as Dante and Petrarch, said VIDC. He betrayed ... the ideals of antiquity and the humanism of Petrarch '. VIDC added that 'the truth of the immutable fact remains that the poet, driven by the ideals of patriotism and love of freedom, it is always of the highest spirit of man'.
Due to poor health. unable to personally attend the ceremony. A year later he died. Currently,. mainly reading specialists in literature, which often celebrate the vitality and universality of his poetry. His work is intimately connected with the Risorgimento - the movement of the XIX century., Which aimed to political unification of Italy.