Laxness (Laxness), Halldö¨r( Icelandic novelist and essayist Nobel Prize for Literature, 1955)
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Biography Laxness (Laxness), Halldö¨r
genus. April 23, 1902
Icelandic novelist and essayist Halldö¨r Laxness (real name Halldö¨r Gudjonsson) was born in Reykjavik, family Gudona Helgi Helgason, an inspector on the construction of roads, and Singridur Haldorsdottir. When the boy was 3 years old, the family moved to the farm, located south of Reykjavik. The farm was called Laxness, which means 'peninsula Salmon' (a name later became the pseudonym of a writer). Child L. listened as his father tells the Icelandic sagas, and reads the works of epic poetry from the family library. Father also taught the boy to play the violin, in addition, Halldö¨r traveled to Reykjavik - in school and music lessons. Still at school he secretly composing romantic stories, one of which, the story 'child of nature' ( 'Barn natturunnar'), was published in 1919. under the pseudonym of Halldö¨r Fra Laksnezi.
After his father died in 1919. L. first time going abroad for a long time living in Copenhagen, in 1921 ... 1922. He made a trip to Austria and Germany, and in 1922. go to France, where he met with surrealism. Spiritual quest led L. the Benedictine monastery Klervo in Luxembourg, where in 1923. he moved from Lutheranism to Catholicism and took the name of Laxness.
Abroad A. continues to write. In 1923, Mr.. he released the compilation 'Some stories' ( 'Nokkrar sogur') and in 1924. novel 'Under the holy mountain' ( 'Undir Helgahnuk'), which describes his childhood Icelandic boy. The writer also began work on his autobiography 'From the house I left' ( 'Heiman eg for'), saw the light only in 1952. In 1925, Mr.. out his work, permeated with an apology for Roman Catholicism, - 'From the Catholic point of view' ( 'Kapolsk vidhorf'). In the same year, after a brief stay at home, L. goes to Sicily, where he wrote his first great novel, 'The great weaver from Kashmir' ( 'Vefarinn miklifra Kasmir', 1927), which describes the history of the spiritual development of young writers from Reykjavik. Autobiographical in content and in a surreal manner, this novel is also the first major success L. In Iceland, however, the novel has been criticized for stylistic experimentation and decadence, as well as the use of foreign words and expressions, which was seen as an encroachment on national Icelandic culture.
In 1927 ... 1929. L. lives in North America. In the story, in which he described the poverty of Icelandic immigrants in Manitoba (province in Canada), L. threatened with deportation from the country. In the same period, the writer broke with Catholicism and is keen on the leftist ideas, . and after some time, . while in the United States, . he was under the influence of Upton Sinclair is a socialist, . which was reflected in his collection of essays 'The People's Book' ( 'Alpydubokin', . 1929).,
. In 1930
. in connection with the millennial celebration of the anniversary of the Icelandic Parliament L. returns to Iceland. During this stay at home d. marries Ingiborg (Inge) Eynarsdottir. In 1931 ... 1932. writer publishes two-volume novel 'Salk Felling' ( 'Salka Valka'). Released in 1936. in English, this novel made a great impression on some American critics. This was the first epic novel, LA, where a merciless realism described arduous life of the Icelandic lower classes. In 1934 ... 1935. out his two-volume novel 'Independent People' ( 'Sjalfstoett folk'). This history of the struggle of the poor farmer with nature and social oppression. When the novel 'Independent People' was published in the United States, for L. the reputation of one of the best Icelandic writers. 'Light of the World' ( 'Heimsljos', 1937 ... 1940) - the four volumes is the saga of a poor poet, which is the core of the conflict between the poet's love for beauty and its rejection of social injustice. The writer himself considered 'Light of the world' most important product of his. After this novel, he wrote 'Icelandic bell' ( 'Islandsklukkan', 1943 ... 1946), a historical trilogy, which takes place in the XVII century., During the Danish rule in Iceland. Despite the fact that in the best novels of L. 30 ... 40-ies. describes the terrible social conditions, these books are imbued with irony and compassion.
Among other works L. those years - travel notes of the writer's trip to Russia: 'The Road to the east' ( 'I Austurvegi', 1933) and 'Russian fairy tale' ( 'Gerska oefintyrid', 1938). At the same time, published several collections of short stories writer, the play 'short route' ( 'Straum-rof', 1934), poetry collection 'Poems' ( 'Kvoedakver', 1930), as well as translation of Hemingway's 'Farewell to Arms' (1941 ).
In 1940. L. divorced Inga Eynarsdottir; after 5 years, he married Eudur Sveynsdottir. The summer they spent on the family farm, and in the winter living in Reykjavik. Realizing that the population of Iceland is too small and even the most prominent national writer can not exist only on his literary earnings, the government granted him an annual stipend, from which L. eventually refused: scholarship was cut several times and the writer found that getting her humiliating.
In 1948, Mr.. L. published a 'nuclear power station' ( 'Atomstodin'), a satirical novel about the atomic age, which is not enjoyed such success as his early works. In the United States 'Nuclear Power Station' was published only in 1982. - Perhaps because in this novel appeared pro sentiments of the writer. In 1950, Mr.. L. became chairman of the society 'Iceland - the USSR', which is also indicative of his pro-Soviet orientation.
In 1955, Mr.. L. was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature 'for vivid epic power which has revived the great narrative art of Iceland ". E. Vaessen, a member of the Swedish Academy, in his speech at the award ceremony paid tribute to the rich heritage of Icelandic literature, and noted that 'Halldö¨r L. returned the books to its roots and enriched Icelandic new artistic means to express the contemporary meaning '. He called the 'Light of the World' A masterpiece. In reply, L. acknowledged that owes Old Icelandic storyteller, whose epic works of 'created not only one of the most beautiful and elegant language, but also an original literary genre'.
. In the novel 'The fish can sing' ( 'Brekkukotsannall', 1957) style L
. changes. This lyrical tone of the novel is permeated with faith in the writer's dignity and human kindness. In this novel and the subsequent L. departs from the social and political issues, which dominated his work over three decades. In 1963, Mr.. widely known autobiographical book A. 'Poetic era' ( 'Skaldatimi'), where the writer criticizes the Soviet Communism. In 60-ies. L. continues to write novels, memoirs, essays, plays and a lot of converts.
In Scandinavian literature, L. and to this day enjoys a reputation as an outstanding writer. In his biography (1971) Peter Hallberg noted that 'Icelandic heritage is always a living force in his works. This strength comes through in the writer's thinking about today, and in his creative search. All his work is riddled with contradictions between the domestic and foreign, own and others, and this contradiction has been very fruitful for him. "
In his article, 1980. Icelandic literary critic Sven Heskuldson called L. the most famous Icelandic writer of the XX century., noting that 'his creative power has no equal: L. artistically reinterpreted absolutely all aspects of life in Iceland '. 'Due to its narrative art and original style L. made to update the Icelandic prose more than any other contemporary novelist - wrote in 1982. Icelandic critic Sigurdur Magnusson. - He has an unusually large range of topics and styles, manners, and his novels are similar to each other only expressiveness and capacity characteristics of portrait '. Despite such critical acclaim, tremendous popularity of the writer in Iceland, as well as recognition of his achievements literary critics, outside of Scandinavia L. little is known.