Maeterlinck (Maeterlinck), Maurice( Belgian playwright and essayist Nobel Prize for Literature, 1911)
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Biography Maeterlinck (Maeterlinck), Maurice
August 29, 1862, Mr.. - May 6, 1949
Belgian dramatist and essayist Maurice Polydore Marie Bernard Maeterlinck was born in 1862. in Ghent, in the prosperous Flemish family. His father was a notary and his mother - the daughter of a wealthy lawyer. From 1874 to 1881. M. attended the Jesuit college. The boy was interested in poetry, literature, but the parents insisted that he studied law at the University of Ghent. Received in 1885. diploma M. goes to Paris for improvement in the law, but those 6 months he spent in Paris, were given to the entire literature. In Paris, M. acquainted with the symbolist poet StцLphane Mal and Villiers de l'Isle-Adan. On the advice of decadent writer Joris-Karl Huysmans M. reading a book in the Flemish mystic XIV. Jan van Rausbruka 'Decoration spiritual marriage', which in 1891. translates into French.
Upon his return to Ghent M. works as a lawyer, continues to engage in literature. In Paris the monthly 'Ple'iade' ( "La Pleiade") is printed novel M. 'Killing innocents' ( "Le Massacre des innocents", 1866), and in 1889. He released poetry collection 'greenhouses' ( "Serres chaudes") and the play-tale' The Princess Mallein '( "La Princesse Maleine'), . laudatory review which puts in 'Figaro' influential French critic Octave Mirbeau: Mirbeau called 'Princess Mallein' masterpiece, . and its author compares with Shakespeare,
. Encouraged by praise famous critic, M. left legal practice and to devote himself to literature.
In subsequent years, M. wrote symbolic play: 'unsolicited' ( "L'lntruse", . 1890) - Drama, . virtually devoid of, . where the family is waiting, . until die woman in labor (this is the first play of the playwright's death, . alone); 'Blind' ( "Les Aveugles", . 1890) - is a metaphor for death is a group of blind, . lost in the dark woods; 'Seven Princesses' ( "Les Sept Princesses", . 1891) - a tale of a prince, . that should wake of the deadly sleep of seven princesses, . Prince arrives on time and saves all, . except his beloved; 'Peleas and Melisende' ( "Pelleas et Melisande", . 1892) - story of illicit passion with a tragic ending (there is a same-name opera by Claude Debussy, . 1902),
. For all of these pieces is characterized by the mysterious atmosphere of a fairy tale, the characters say little, short, meaningful phrases, much remains in the subtext.
In 1894, Mr.. M. wrote three plays for puppets: 'Alladin and Palomid' ( 'Alladine et Palomides "),' Underneath '(" Interieur ") and' Death Tentazhilya '(" La Mort de Tintagiles "). By Puppet Theater playwright drawn because, unlike live actors, puppets can play a character, to convey the archetype of his heroes.
In 1895, Mr.. M. met Georgette Leblanc, an actress and singer, who became his companion of 23 years. LeBlanc, strong-willed, educated woman who combined the duties of the secretary and impresario M., protects him calm, shielded from extraneous. Besides, . Georgette performed leading roles, . basically the power of women, . such plays playwright, . as 'Aglavena and Selizetta' ( "Aglavaine et Selysette", . 1896), . "Ariane and Bluebeard '(" Ariane et Barbe-Bleue ", . 1901), . 'Monna Bath' ( "Monna Vanna", . 1902) and 'Zhuazel' ( "Joyzelle", . 1903),
. These pieces are more traditional and, according to biographer M. Bettina Knapp, weaker than the panto and plays for puppets.
In 1896, Mr.. M. and Leblanc moved from Ghent, where his plays were the subject of ridicule in Paris. During these years, M. wrote metaphysical essays and treatises, . which entered the collections of 'The Treasure of the humble' ( "Le Tresor des humbles", . 1896), . 'Wisdom and destiny' ( "La Sagesse et la destinee", . 1898), . and 'Life of Bees' ( "La Vie des abeilles, . 1901), . which drew an analogy between the activity of bees and human behavior.,
. 'Blue Bird' ( "L'Oiseau bleu"), perhaps the most popular piece M., was first staged in 1908
. Stanislavsky at the Moscow Art Theater; played 'Blue Bird' and in London, New York, Paris. In this play M. returns to the symbolic fairytale style of their works 1890. 'Blue Bird' has gained popularity not only with the fantastic imagination, but also the allegorical. The story of one of the heroes of this play, Tiltil, M. continues in the play-fairy 'Betrothal' ( "Les Fiancailles", 1918).
In 1911, Mr.. M. was awarded the Nobel Prize 'for the multi-faceted literary activity, especially for dramatic works, marked by the wealth of imagination and poetic imagination'. In his speech, a member of the Swedish Academy SD. VIDC highlighted the play 'Aglavena and Selizetta', that is not consistent with a rather low estimate of the play today. Due to illness M. unable to attend the ceremony and the award was presented to the Belgian Ambassador to Sweden Charles Wouters. Soon M. asked to become a member of the French Academy, but the playwright rejected this proposal, because for this he had to renounce Belgian citizenship.
During the First World War, M. tried to enroll in the Belgian Civil Guard, but missed it because of the age. Patriotic activities playwright was, therefore, in reading the propaganda lectures in Europe and the United States. At this time, his relationship with LeBlanc soured, and after the war, they parted. In 1919, Mr.. M. marries Rene Daon, the actress, who played in 'Bluebird'. In his last years M. wrote more articles than the plays, from 1927 to 1942. turned out 12 volumes of his writings, the most interesting of which is 'Life termites' ( "La Vie des termites", 1926), figurative condemnation of communism and totalitarianism, turning people into termites - well-organized, but stupid creatures. Other philosophical treatises of the period included in the collections of 'Living Space' ( "La Vie de l'espace", 1928), 'Big extravaganza' ( "La Grande feerie", 1929) and 'Great Law' ( "La Grande Loi", 1933).
. B 1939, when Nazi Germany threatened Europe, M
. moved to Portugal under the patronage of Portuguese dictator Antonio Salazar.
When it became clear that Portugal can also be under Hitler's heel, M. with his wife went to the United States, where he had lived through the war and returned to Nice in his mansion 'Pchelnik' in 1947. M. died on 6 May 1949. heart attack. Since the life the writer was a confirmed atheist, he was buried not in church.
In addition to the Nobel Prize, M. received an honorary doctorate of the University of Glasgow, Belgium Grand Cross of the Order of Leopold (1920) and the Portuguese Order of the Sword St.. Jacob (1939). In 1932, Mr.. Belgium's King granted the title of Count playwright.
His continued high standing M. must mainly plays, which are placed so far. The playwright is considered one of the founders of the theater of the absurd, his works have had a special influence on the plays of Samuel Beckett. Debussy's opera 'Peleas and Melisende' included in the repertoire of many opera houses in the world ..
'M. to nothing and makes no calls to anyone sentences - wrote v1967 g. Joanna Pataki Kozoff. - His art never becomes propaganda because it appeals to the fundamental values that are outside of politics and psychiatry '. The monograph 'Maurice Maeterlinck' (1975) critic Wettin Knapp suggests that M. often turned to the genre of fairy tales because the story is 'the deepest and simplest expression of collective consciousness, it appeals to human feelings'.