Czeslaw Milosz (Milosz Czeslaw)( Polish-American poet and essayist of the Nobel Prize for Literature, 1980)
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Biography Czeslaw Milosz (Milosz Czeslaw)
genus. June 30, 1911
Polish-American poet and essayist Czeslaw Milosz was born in the town Sheteynyay in Lithuania, then part of that time in the Tsarist Russia. Polish by birth, his father Alexander and mother, born Veronica Kunat, lived in a multiethnic country, rich in contradictory traditions. As a result, Czeslaw said, not only in his native Polish, but also in Lithuanian, Jewish and Russian.
When the German army in 1914. invaded Lithuania, the father of M., civil engineer, was mobilized, and together with the royal army family Milosz began a journey to the east. They wandered for six years of serious wars and revolutions, while in 1920. no peace was concluded between Soviet Russia and Poland.
After the war, Milosz's family settled in Vilna (present-day Vilnius), in this cosmopolitan city, which the Jews who lived there called the Jerusalem of Lithuania. In 1921, when M. began to learn, Vilna became part of Poland. M. received a strict Catholic upbringing, for seven years he has diligently studied Latin, and in 1929. enrolled in local university. Confident in his vocation of the poet, the young man nevertheless decided to study law. His first poetry collection 'The Rime of the frozen time' ( 'Poemat of czasie zastuglym') was released in 1933
During these years, M. - An active participant in the literary circle 'е+agarд?', whose members later became known as 'katastrofisty' - because of their strong belief in the inevitability of a cosmic catastrophe.
In 1934, Mr.. after the thesis defense lawyer M. receives a scholarship and went to Paris to study literature. There he established a close relationship with his uncle, Oscar Milosz, a diplomat and poet, who wrote in French and was considered a recluse and dreamer. Year spent in Paris, played an important role in the life of M. poet; later he will remember that Oscar Milosz 'pointed to the need for strict austerity in all matters relating to intellectual activity, t.ch. in art '. 'And above all, - M. says - he taught me not to despair in anticipation of the impending catastrophe'.
When he returned to Vilna, M. in 1936. released his second collection of poems, "Three winters' ( 'Trzy zimy') and receives a seat on the editorial director of radio, but a year later for his leftist views loses his job and moved to Warsaw. From a political point of view of Poland in those years had not the best of times - it seemed the darkest prophecies come true katastrofistov. For centuries, the Polish borders were changed - the rival foreign powers fighting for supremacy over this country. After the First World War, Poland gained its independence, but in the late 30-ies. Hitler and Stalin had prepared a secret agreement to divide Poland. Because of the difficult, troubled history of the national consciousness of the people found its fullest expression not in politics and in literature, so the poet in Poland occupies a special place, and M. considered himself is a poet, not a radical or, as some thought, Marxist.
When the German army in 1939. occupied Poland and the country descended on the tragedy, which all had a premonition, M. in accordance with the vocation of the poet, as he understood it, took an independent stance and challenged fascism.
He took an active part in the Polish resistance movement, one of the most powerful in Europe. The destruction of the Jewish ghetto, witnessed what he was, left its imprint on his whole life. In 1944, Mr.. M. married Ioannina Dluzke, they had two sons.
After the war, M. works in the Polish diplomatic mission, first in Washington and then in Paris, but after coming to power of Communists broke with the regime and in 1951. is an emigrant from the inability to tolerate 'distortion of the truth' and moral relativism of the totalitarian state. Settling in Paris, M. wrote in 1953. 'Enslaved mind' ( 'Zniwolony umysl'), which reflects on the impact of totalitarianism on the personality of the artist. 'Enslaved mind' brought him fame in the West.
Life in exile has been excruciatingly difficult, as M. said, looking up from his native land and language, poetic source and impetus, he doomed himself to 'infertility and inaction'. Being the first time unable to write poetry, M. in 1955. published novel 'The Valley of Issa' ( 'Dolina Issy'), the recollection of his childhood in Lithuania, the elegiac narrative of the fate of teenager. Around the same time published the novel 'The seizure of power' ( 'Zdobycie Wladzy', 1953) - prosaic analogy 'enslaved mind' - for which the poet receives a European literary prize. After this award, Moscow, as he said, would 'press the gas and printed without ceasing'. However, the poet could not be reconciled with the position of the French 'left' intellectuals who still believed that Soviet Communism will save the world, and have not seen his essence, and in 1960. M. moved to the United States. One year later, M. became a professor of Slavic Studies, University of California at Berkeley, and in 1970 he. receive U.S. citizenship.
M. Fears that he would not be able to write in exile, not confirmed. Over the years, lived in America, leave it to the Polish translation, Polish translation of the Bible (Psalms), the works of Whitman, Shakespeare, Milton, mc. Eliot, Baudelaire in his translation into Polish, but also appreciated the work of autobiographical and literary character, essays and poems.
M. was awarded a literary prize Marian Kister (1967), . Prize fund Yuzhikovskogo for creative achievement (1968), . Prize of the Polish PEN Club in Warsaw for a poetic translation, . Noyshtadtskoy International Literary Prize 1978), . Guggenheymskoy Scholarship (1974) and an honorary doctorate at Michigan State University.,
. In 1980, the Nobel Prize for Literature was awarded to MI, 'which is a fearless clairvoyance revealed the vulnerability of people in a world torn by conflict'
. 'The world depicted M., - said in his speech Yyullensten Lara, a member of the Swedish Academy - is a world in which man lives after the expulsion from paradise'. 'When you read your works, - turned to M. Yyullensten - enriched by new life experiences, despite some of its foreignness'.
In his Nobel lecture M. touched on his childhood, and then turned to issues of policy and emigration. 'Link of the poet, - he said - is a consequence of the proposition that seized power in the country and language controls this country, not only through censorship, but also changing the meaning of the words. And then the writer's duty is to remember. Memory - this is our strength. Those who are alive receive a mandate from those who are silent forever. They can do their duty, just calling a spade a spade, freeing the past from the myths and legends'.
M. considered one of the greatest Polish poets, and in the opinion of the Soviet emigre poet Joseph Brodsky, is perhaps the greatest poet of our time. In the West, the popularity of M. increases to the extent that they exceed translations of his books. In Poland in the years when his works were banned, they were distributed illegally. When before the award of the Nobel Prize poet, came home, he was greeted as a national hero.
Poetry M. captivates its thematic diversity and intellectual wealth, a combination of rationality and lyricism; concretely sensuous imagery and dialectical power, moral strength and conviction. Poetry M. absorbed a great deal: here and originality of the traditions of Eastern Europe - his homeland, the influence of Christianity, Judaism, Marxism, and it went all the bloody history of XX century. and painful experience of exile. As the American poet and publisher Jonathan Gelassi, 'all the powers of M. are intended to counter the bitter experience, and not only their own lives, but throughout history, with its paradoxical combination of terrible and beautiful '. Terek des PrцLs wrote in the magazine 'Nation' (1978), that 'for M. all permeated with history - people, cities, things. The fate for him - this man's destiny ... I do not know the poet, more inclined to exalt man and therefore more suffering ... Through his art M. found a solution to the most pressing spiritual dilemmas of our time: how to bear the burden of historical memory and do not despair '. As stressed by Paul Zweig, 'M. convinced that poetry is not only aesthetic but also a moral category, it must translate the suffering of the individual to the level of values, which protects against skepticism and futile rage, and, consequently, the temptation of ideology '.
|Masha for Czeslaw Milosz (Milosz Czeslaw)
|Milos - an unexpected discovery. Imagined that the world can not exist like that. Poles continue to amaze me ...
|Masha for Czeslaw Milosz (Milosz Czeslaw)
|The sudden and shocking discovery. Well, I'm so uneducated man: the world for me is full of mysteries and miracles. Poles continue to amaze ...