Gabriela Mistral( Chilean poet and educator Nobel Prize for Literature, 1945)
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Biography Gabriela Mistral
April 1889, Mr.. - 10 January 1957
. Gabriela Mistral - nickname of the Chilean poet and educator Lucille Godoy Alkayagi, . born in the alpine village of Vicuц¦a in the Andes in the family JerцЁnimo Godoy Viyanueva, . Indian origin, . elementary school teacher in the village of La Union, . and Petronily Alkayagi de Molina, . origin of the Basques, . who had a daughter from his first marriage,
. Father M. was pallador, ie. bard, who wrote poems for local festivals and led a wandering life, ever to leave the family.
In 1892, Mr.. M. her mother settled in the town of Monte Grande, and 9 years moved to the village of La Serena, where her sister Emmeline was the place of teacher. Under the influence of sister M. also wanted to become a teacher, and became interested in politics. In subsequent years, awareness in this area allowed her to freely express their views in poems and newspaper articles published in local press. In 1907, working an assistant teacher in the village of La Cantera, a girl met a railway worker Romel Uretoy, which soon became engaged. However, young people and not married, because often quarreled, and two years later Ureta committed suicide.
. It was then Moscow, grieved at the death of the groom, wrote his first major poetic work 'Sonnets of death' ( "Sonetos de la muerte", 1914), won first prize in the Chilean literary contest in Santiago, 'Flower Festival'
. Fearing, . love poems that could damage her teaching career, . young poet publishes 'Sonnets of death' under the pen name Gabriela Mistral, . undertaken in honor of her favorite writers, . Italian Gabriele D'Annunzio and the Provencal poet Frederic Mistral,
. This is a pseudonym, who soon became known throughout the Hispanic world, the poetess enjoyed in the future.
A year after the suicide Urety M. receives on a competitive place teachers at the Teachers College in Santiago, and makes a quick career, she soon becomes the chief inspector and also a teacher of history, . Geography and the Spanish language in the northern Chilean city of Antofagasta.,
. Another love story Gabriela also ended sadly, though the details of her relatively unknown, even know the name of the young poet from Santiago, in which she was in love
. Known only, . that in the end he married a rich woman, . and M., . relive the bitterness of loss, . moved to Punta Arenas, . the south, . where within two years of hard work, she wrote a poetic cycle, . which provides access to their severe state of depression.,
. From Punta Arenas M
. moved to Temuco, . city in central, . Indian part of Chile, . where she became director of the Women's Lyceum, and where he met Pablo Neruda, . which in its 16 years has been president of the local literary society, and which M., . assessing his talent and are strongly encouraging the development of his poetic skill, . opened access to the library of the Lyceum.,
. In 1921, Mr.
. M. appointed director of the Lyceum in Santiago. Those who knew her in those years, could not but draw attention to the fact that M. whimsically combines features of a lonely, sad and majestic nature with features fun, sometimes flirtatious women. Transfer M. the capital coincided with her familiarity with Federico de Onesimus, a professor at Columbia University, who helped publish a collection of her poems 'Despair' ( "Desolacion", 1922) Made by Spain's Institute at Columbia University,. In the title of the book was the title of one of the poems included in it, which describes the desolate landscape - only the wind and thick fog, symbolizing the intellectual and spiritual confusion.
. After about 20 years, American critic Mildred Adams wrote in the journal 'Nation' ( "Nation"): 'Despair' - is the passion and tragedy, . suicide favorite, . torture women, . who quarreled with him and lost him, it is a fierce desire to have a child from a loved one,
. Themes of grief, anguish, despair, combined with a love of country landscape and the village children, with the understanding of the mission teacher in high society. The poetic language is simple, almost primitive. "
Due to the prestige of the Institute of Spain, as well as the talent of the poet's first publication of poems M. outside Chile almost immediately brought her international recognition. American literary critic Alfred Ortiz-Vargas wrote in 'Science of poetry', that the emergence of such a poet as M. - is' event period, for in her poetry bears the imprint of eternity ... Her poetry elevates the reader noble thoughts, high ideals, sincere sympathy to all the weak, suffering, dying. "
Shortly after M. was appointed director of the school in Santiago, Chile went a law prohibiting individuals without university education teachers to work. M. retired and soon received an invitation from JosцL Vasconcelos, Minister of Education of Mexico, to draft a reform of Mexican schools and libraries. Developed M. project was successful. While living in Mexico, the poet found time to study the history of Indians and to travel around the country.
Mexico M. goes to the United States, and thence to Spain, Switzerland and Italy. When the poet returned to Chile, it was met with top honors as the authorized representative of the Chilean culture and education, gave her a pension for a teaching job and was appointed adviser to the government on Latin American culture.
. A second collection of poems, M., 'Tenderness' ( "Ternura", 1924), also had great success
. Many poems of this collection the poet does not hide his grief, women do not experience the joys of motherhood. Two years after the release of 'Tenderness' M. goes to Paris to work in the Committee on Intellectual Cooperation of the League of Nations. Her duties included, inter alia, the selection of works by Latin American authors to publish in Europe, and M. recommends that the product in every way Neruda, who at the time worked by the Chilean consul in Saigon. In 1930 ... 1931. poet teaches Latin American literature at Barnard College, Columbia University, about the same time lecturing at Vassar College and Middlebury College, during a semester teaching at the University of Puerto Rico. Did a M. and diplomatic career: in 1932. it was the Chilean consul in Italy, and in 1934. - In Spain.
In 1938. goes 'Destruction' ( "Tala"), a collection of poems, dramatically anti-fascist in spirit, imbued with a deep sympathy for the victims of the civil war in Spain. In the same year, M. appointed Chilean consul in France, but because of the threat of World War II, seeks to relocate to Brazil. Here M. becomes a close friend who had emigrated from Austria Stefan Zweig. In 1942, Mr.. Zweig and his wife, it is hard going through the Jewish genocide committed suicide. After a year and a half had committed suicide and eighteen nephew M., Juan Miguel, who lived with her from the age of four. Apparently, it had its effect heavily suicide Zweig, and contemptuous attitude of the Brazilian students. For M. loss of Juan Miguel was tantamount to the loss of a son.
In 1945, Mr.. M. was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature 'for the poetry of true feeling, which made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations for the whole of Latin America'. In his speech, a member of the Swedish Academy Hjalmar Gulberg said: "Paying tribute to the rich Latin American literature, we welcome its queen, creator of 'Despair', which became a great singer, grief and motherhood '. M. became the first Latin American writer, won the Nobel Prize in literature. In reply, the Chilean poet said that he considers himself a representative of the entire Latin American culture and welcomes 'spiritual pioneers of Sweden'. M. also noted that she received the Nobel Prize, perhaps because in her poetry the voices of women and children, whose representative it is.
In 1946, Mr.. M. becomes the Chilean consul in Los Angeles, at one time worked as the UN Commission on Human Rights. In 1951, Mr.. She was awarded the Chilean National Prize in literature and in the same year, the newly appointed consul in Italy, but due to ill health will soon be retiring and moving to his home in New York, yet in 1954. poet finds the strength to go home in connection with the awarding her the honorary degree, University of Chile and speak at the presidential palace with a speech by listening to 200 thousand. man. After returning to New York awarded her an honorary degree from Columbia University.
In 1954, Mr.. M. published his latest book of poems 'winepress' ( "Lagar"), mainly devoted to suicide Zweig and his nephew. 'Link and return, mourning and rebirth - wrote about the' winepress' Chilean critic Fernando Alegria - that is themes that run through her entire life, and faith alone, according to the poet, can bring salvation. "
M. died of cancer in New York at the age of 67 years. The funeral service was held in St. Peter. Patrick, after which the body was transported to Chile, and after three days of national mourning was buried in Monte Grande, where the poet spent his childhood. On the headstone carved her own words: 'A people without a painter - a body without a soul'.
'Many of his poems M. sounds like a prayer - wrote in the 30-ies. Francisco Donoso, Chilean writer and priest. - Sometimes, in this prayer is heard love, and sometimes, when it arises in the soul of the tragic vision - a desperate call '. 'In the Spanish-speaking countries poems Gabriele know in every home', - noted American poet Langston Hughes in the preface to 'Favorite poems by Gabriela Mistral "(1957), published in his translation. 'Most of her poems are simple and natural, - continues Hughes - there is no loftiness, flowery'. In the book "Gabriela Mistral" (1962) critic Arturo Torres Rioseco poet calls 'an outstanding teacher and writer, an epoch in literature'. 'Its innovative gift - an example for the young writers', - he said.
'In comparison with Latin American literature in general - wrote a literary critic and biographer Margot Arce de Vazquez, in his monograph of the Chilean poet, - creativity M. completely original, it has its own voice '. From the perspective of an American literary critic Margaret Bates, 'Gabriela, that is typical for the Spanish poetic culture, turns his back to the elegance, deliberately avoids smoothness prefer sharp, rough strokes'. 'From the other poets of his time, . - Bates wrote in the preface to his book 'Selected Poems Gabriela Mistral "(1971), . - Often painfully self-centered, . acutely aware of their femininity, . It differs, . that itself says only pejoratively,
. In his poems, as in life, she has always been an ardent foe of vanity '.