Mommsen (Mommsen), Theodore( German historian of the Nobel Prize for Literature, 1902)
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Biography Mommsen (Mommsen), Theodore
November 30, 1817, Mr.. - November 1, 1903
The German historian Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen was born in the village of Harding, in the Duchy of Schleswig, at the time belonged to Denmark. When M. was 4 years, . his family moved to Oldesloe, . the Duchy of Holstein, . also under the authority of Denmark Father Theodore, . Jens Mommsen, . Protestant clergyman modest means, . instilled in his son a love for literature, . introduced him to German poetry, . helped him to translate Hugo, . Byron and Shakespeare into German, . spoken in the family home, . and subsequently in the Christian high school in Alton Theodore received an excellent education in the field of classical languages, . Philosophy, . rhetoric and German literature.,
. Having entered the University of Kiel (1938), M
. decides to study law, a course focusing on the Roman law. In Kiel, a young professor Otto Yang introduced M. with the skills of study and interpretation of ancient inscriptions. While studying at the University of M. are also interested in literature and published 'Songbook three friends' ( "Liederbuch dreier Freunde") - collection of poems written by himself, his brother Teho and their mutual friend, Theodor Storm.
At last year at Keele University M. wrote a treatise "De collegns et sodaliciis Romanorum" ( 'On the boards and corporations in the Romans', lat.). Based on this work, and also because of the excellent performance M. University professors petitioned to the Danish Government to award scholarships to outstanding students, on which M. could go to three years in Italy. In Italy, M. wrote numerous articles and began to gather material for his fundamental work "Corpus Insnptionum Latmarum" ( 'Body of Latin inscriptions', lat.) voluminous collection of Latin inscriptions published in 16 volumes from 1863 to 1936. The first volume was published with a dedication to Count Bartolomeo Borghese, an Italian politician and scientist, who at first provided M. support.
Back in 1847, Mr.. in Shlezvit, M. takes part in the democratic movement, which sought relief from Danish dominion germanoyazychnyh duchies, located north of the Elbe. During the revolution of 1848. Historian publishes a liberal newspaper 'Schleswig-Golshteynishe Zeitung' ( "Schleswig-Holsteinische Zeitung"), but in the end of the year away from the newspaper and became a professor of civil law at the University of Leipzig. In the same year, M. takes part in the Saxon uprising, for which he is deprived of the department, Yves 1852. sent to Zurich, where the proceeds to the fundamental paper on the history of Rome, which, despite its strictly scientific in nature, was designed for the general reader.
. The first volume of 'Roman History' ( "Romische Geschichte") appeared in 1854, the very same when M
. returned to Germany and became a professor at the University of Breslau, in Prussia. In the same year, historian married to Mary Reimer, the daughter of a bookseller, from a marriage with whom he had sixteen children. The first three volumes of 'Roman History' (second and third came in 1855 1856.) Covers the history of Rome from its foundation up to 46 g. BC, when Julius Caesar defeated the troops of the Senate in North Africa. This work, which differs sharpened language, and encyclopedic knowledge of history and culture of ancient Rome, brought M. world fame. In order to give his work a lively, convexity, M. often compares the Roman policy with the XIX century. Although some scientific discoveries in the light of recent studies are outdated, 'Roman History' is still considered a significant contribution to the history and literature.
M. planned to write a fourth volume devoted to the history of the Roman emperors, but the plan was never realized in life - to historians that the fourth volume will give the level of the first three. Study M. 'Roman province. From Caesar to Diocletian '( "Die Provmzen, von Caesar bis Diocletian"), covering the first three centuries of history of Rome, was published in 1885. as the fifth volume of 'Roman History'.
In 1858, Mr.. M. gets the chair of Roman history at Berlin University and lives in Berlin before the end of life. The scientist was elected a member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences, whose support allowed him to continue work on "Corpus Inscnptionum". All these years, M. continues to actively engage in political activity. From 1863 to 1866. and from 1873 to 1879. it is in the Prussian Parliament. Progressive Party, . and after, . as Bismarck united the independent Germanic states into one empire Germanskuyu, . becomes a member of the Reichstag, . which opposes the internal politics of Bismarck, . well as against anti-Semitism, . widespread in the university environment.,
. From 1871 to 1888
. M. produces three-volume study of 'Roman constitutional law' ( "Romisches Staatsrecht"), which codifies the legal system that underlies the Roman constitution, and analyze it in the context of the history of Rome. For 'constitutional right' in 1899. followed by 'Roman criminal law' ( "Romisches Strafrecht").
In 1902, Mr.. one of the most obvious candidates for the Nobel Prize for literature was Leo Tolstoy, . but many of his views were unacceptable to the Nobel Committee, . in connection with which it was decided to extend the terms of the competition and to consider not only literary, . and historical works,
. As a result, the prize was awarded to MI, 'one of the greatest historical writers, whose pen belongs to such a monumental work, like' Roman History '. In his congratulatory speech, SD. VIDC, a member of the Swedish Academy, paid tribute not only extensive knowledge of MS, but his brilliant style. The historian, who was already 85 years old, Nobel lecture, not read.
November 1, 1903, Mr.. M. died in Charlottenburg, near Berlin.
Slender, with a good lively face and sparkling eyes, MI, as an eyewitness, was a brilliant lecturer. In his research he helped many students to whom he in turn also provide full support. Historians James Thompson and Bernard Holm, co-authors 'Body of historical research', called M. 'miracle of German science'. According to British historian Francis J. Heyerfilda, M. was both 'a poet, lawyer, critic and artist - an impressionable and enthusiastic, imaginative'.