Mauriac (Mauriac), Franö¬ois( French novelist, dramatist and poet, Nobel Prize for Literature, 1952)
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Biography Mauriac (Mauriac), Franö¬ois
October 11, 1885, Mr.. - September 1, 1970
French novelist, dramatist and poet Charles Francois Mauriac was born in Bordeaux, in a large family of a wealthy businessman Jean-Paul Mauriac Mauriac and Margaret, nee Coiffard. His father died when M. are not even two years, after which the family moved to the mother's parents. M. recalled that, as a shy boy, he felt very unhappy at school St.. Mary, where he was sent to 7 years. Three years later he enrolled in college marionitov, where she first met with the Racine and Pascal, who became his favorite writers. Summer M. spent at the family estate of his grandfather near Bordeaux, and landscapes of these places appear in many of his novels. After graduating from college M. entered the University of Bordeaux, which ends in 1905, receiving a Licentiate (MA) in literature.
The next year, M. goes to Paris to prepare for entrance examinations to the Ecole de Shart, school, manufacturer of historians, medievalists and archivists. He goes into it in 1908, but six months later drop out of school and completely devoted himself to literature. This decision prompted his proposal editorial reviews' Our Time '(' Le Temps Present ') to publish his first poetry collection, "the United hands' (' Les Mains jointes'). In November 1909. it was printed, and in 1910. famous writer Maurice Barres wrote laudatory review of this book.
In 1911, Mr.. M. working on a second poetry collection. His first novel, "Child under the weight of the chains '(' L'Enfant charge de chaines ') first appeared in the journal Mercure de France' ( 'Mercure de France'), and then, in 1913, has been published by 'Grasse'. In the same year, M. marry Jeanne Lafon, daughter of banker. They had two daughters and two sons, and eldest, Claude, he later became well-known novelist and critic. In 1914, Mr.. France declared war on Germany, and although M. was released from the army for health reasons, he joined the Red Cross and spent two years in the Balkans, working as a medical orderly in the hospital. Discharged in 1918, M. wrote two more novels, . but the first big success brings him the novel 'Kiss, . granted to a leper '(' Le Baiser au lepreux ', . 1922), . which focuses on the missed marriage between ugly, . ugly rich and beautiful peasant girl,
. 'The writer has convincingly shown - he wrote this novel about the English critic Cecil Jenkins in 1965 - of love and adolescence in our society with the help of family and church are being sacrificed to other, non-genuine values. "
. The next two novels M., 'The river of fire' ( 'Le Fleuve de feu') and 'The parent' ( 'Genitrix'), were published in 1923
. and convicted right-wing of the Catholic Church as an abominable and even pornographic books. The novel 'The parent' comes in a dark suburban house not far from Bordeaux, like a house of the novel 'Kiss, granted to a leper' (actually a house of his grandfather MI). 'The parent' - this is a painful description of a tyrannical mother's love for her son, a story about how she ruined his marriage, he had her revenge, but not found happiness.
. The next significant novel, M., . 'Desert of Love' ( 'Le Desert de 1'amour', . 1925), . won first prize of the French Academy, . novel longer and more complex composition, . than previous, . tells about unhappy love of father and son to the same completely dispassionate, . cold woman,
. Irish critic Conor Cruise O'Brien wrote that Mary Cross, the heroine of the novel, embodies the image of the domineering mother, frequently encountered among the writers of the Catholic. At the heart of the novel 'Therese Dekeyru' ( 'Trerese Desqueyroux', 1927), which is influential French literary critics called the best French novel since the beginning of the century, is the sensational trial of 1906. The main heroine, who tried to poison her husband with arsenic and which, by chance, was found not guilty, I do not understand the motives of his crime. However, . According to Maxwell Smith, . majority of readers are convinced, . that she tried to kill Bernard (her husband), not because, . that hated him, . and therefore, . that tried desperately to get rid of family ties, . from a perilous routine, . of bourgeois hypocrisy and pointlessness of existence.,
. In the essay 'The suffering of a Christian' ( 'Souffrances du chretien', 1928) M
. wrote in despair that the ideals of Christianity, which is to mortify the flesh for the sake of the spirit, not feasible in the life. This was followed by a religious crisis, which played a role, and widespread condemnation of his works were Catholics, and the disapproval of his pious mother, and fornication, which threatened to destroy his family. Conversations with the priest helped M. strengthened in faith and peace of mind, as evidenced by the essays 'Flour and joy of a Christian' ( 'Souffrances et bonheur du chretien', 1931). In his book 'What is lost' ( 'Ce qui etait perdu', 1926), there is a new religious orientation of the writer and one of his best novels, "A ball of snakes' ( 'Le Noeud de viperes', 1932), a critic named Charles Dubos 'a brilliant example of the Catholic novel'. 'A ball of snakes' - a family drama, in the center of which stands the tragic figure of the head of the family, a lawyer, whose portrait is made with exceptional psychological skill. M. reveals the hypocrisy prevalent among respectable Catholics, and shows the spiritual rebirth of its main character. After the publication of the novel 'A ball of snakes' M. surgery for cancer of the larynx, which caused almost complete loss of voice.
In 1933. writer was elected to the French Academy.
Although M. continued to write novels, trying to create a great Catholic novel about the salvation of souls, many critics have noted a decline in his work. In 'Fariseyke' ( 'La Pharisienne', . 1941) tells the story of Bridget's Pen, . deeply religious and domineering woman, . which, . interfering in the lives of others, . breaking their fate and, . According to literary critic Henry Peyrat, . 'turns religion into a caricature of the Christian charity',
. However, in the end the heroine realizes his sin and attains salvation.
His work 'God and Mammon' ( 'Dieu et Mammon', 1929) opens a series of religious tracts, chief of which - 'The Life of Jesus' ( 'Vie de Jesus', 1936). During these years, M. drawn to the theater. 'Asmodeus' ( 'Asmodee'), the first of his four plays, directed by Jacques KOSG has been played 100 times for the season 1937 ... 1938. In the theater, 'Comedie Francaise'. One after another came out two collections of short stories M. - 'Three Stories' ( 'Trois Recits', 1929) and 'Diving' ( 'Plongees', 1938).
During the Second World War, when Germany occupied France, M. sometimes wrote articles for the underground magazine 'French literature' ( 'Les Lettres Francaises'). When one of the founders of the magazine was arrested by the Gestapo and executed, M. wrote 'Black book' ( 'Le Cahier noir', 1943), an angry protest against Nazi tyranny and collaboration. And although the 'black book' was published under the pseudonym, M. Some time was forced into hiding. Despite this, after the war, M. exhorted his countrymen to be merciful to those who collaborated with the Germans. New M. was nominated for the Nobel Prize in 1946, but this award was bestowed only 6 years later, in 1952 - 'a deep spiritual insight and artistic power with which he had in his novels reflected the drama of human life'. Member of the Swedish Academy Anders Esterling in his welcoming speech said that 'in the novels of M. Catholic way of thinking is the cornerstone of the background and at the same time '. 'M. not unequaled in clarity and expressiveness of the language - also said Esterling. - The writer can in a few lines to explain the most difficult things. His best books are different logical clarity and a classical economical cost means of expression and thus resemble the tragedy of Racine. "
In his Nobel speech, M. emphasized as necessary to maintain hope in a world permeated with horror and 'mystery of evil'. Man by nature, said Moscow could not doubt that life has a direction and purpose, can not remain in despair. According to M., the despair of modern man born of the absurdity of his existence, the fact that he was in captivity false myths - and this nonsense reduces man to an animal. After receiving the prize M. released his penultimate novel, 'The Lamb' ( 'L'Agneau', 1954). Was busy in those years in journalism, the writer has supported anti-colonial policy of Charles de Gaulle in Morocco, spoke with the leftist Catholics for the independence of Algeria. When in 1958. De Gaulle returned to power, M. was awarded the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor on the proposal of the General. Since the late 50's until the late 60-ies. M. released a series of memoirs and a biography of General de Gaulle. Since the mid 50-ies. before 27 July 1970. he was once made famous weekly newspaper column 'Notebook', witty, sometimes sarcastic comment on political and literary events. This entry collected a much larger audience than his novels. 80 years of M. newspaper 'Le Figaro literer' noted in 1965. special issue, where the best French critics praised his work. Last novel M. 'Child of the past' ( 'Un Adolescent d'autrefois') was released in 1969. The writer died on Sept. 1, 1970, Mr.. Paris.
Henri Pairaud wrote that between 1930 and 1945. French critics would call M. second place in French literature of XX century. after Marcel Proust, but after 1945. interest to the writer began to fall, most critics agree that M. 'obsessed with childhood memories', which he portrays the same social environment, the same heroes who are 'filled with the passion to subdue all those around them'. For Moscow, say critics, is also typical theme of 'miraculous conversion of sinners', as well as dark, tense atmosphere of his novels. And yet, according Peyrat, including written M. are 4 or 5 novels, which prepared for a long life. But writers, adds the critic, which may be said like that, not so much in any country.