Wladyslaw Reymont( Polish novelist, Nobel Prize for Literature, 1924)
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Biography Wladyslaw Reymont
May 6, 1867, Mr.. - December 5, 1925
Polish novelist Wladyslaw Reymont (real name Wladyslaw Stanislaw Reyment) was born in Males Wielkie, a small town in southern Poland, in the petty-bourgeois family. His father, Joseph Reyment, was organist at the village and with great difficulty he could feed a family in which there were nine children. When Vladislav graduated from third grade, he was sent to the teachings of his uncle, a tailor from Warsaw, and soon from P. designed a good apprentice. Some time later he was deported from Warsaw under house surveillance for participation in a strike in Lodz, . but the harsh discipline of his father and fanatical piety of a Catholic mother of Antonina (Kupezhinskoy) Reyment forced the boy to run away from home and become an actor in the itinerant theatrical troupe,
. Although free artistic life he liked, and experience over time, useful for literary creativity, R., convinced that the actor will not pour out, a year left the company.
. For several years, R., to the chagrin of parents, had tried unsuccessfully to find employment for the soul, even a haircut in the monks and several months spent in a monastery in Czestochowa
. In the end, with the help of his father, he became auditor for the railway, and in his spare time, which was enough to read a lot. By reading the future writer with a passion for early childhood, still a teenager, he more than once with a novel or book of poetry ran into the woods or field, to forget about the hard life of the surrounding. Despite the fact that systematic education P. not received, he was well read, knew not only the Polish classics, but also English and French literature of the XIX century.
Auditor Salaries railroad was modest, but the P. had a small house near the village railway, where in his spare time he began to write. 'What I just did not compose, - recalled the writer - drama, very long novels, short stories, poems, and then mercilessly tore everything and burned'. From written in that period have survived, only 6 short stories that P. sent to Warsaw to friend criticism. Novels like in 1893. were published in the Warsaw weekly. Around the same time, P. lost his job on the railroad, but, encouraged by his literary success, he went to Warsaw. The first time, an aspiring novelist who had difficulty making ends meet until he received an offer from one of Warsaw magazine to write an article about the annual pilgrimage to Czestochowa - an important event in Polish public life. It appeared who had great success artistically-documentary reportage 'Pilgrimage to Jasna Gora' ( "Piel grzymka do Jasney Gory", 1894).
In 1896, Mr.. appeared first, inspired by the biographical novel P. 'Comedienne' ( "Komediantka"), a story about a young woman, an actress wandering troupe, which strives for glory. In 'Enzymes' ( "Fermenty", 1897), the continuation of 'comedienne', the heroine Janka moves from town to village, and her journey in the train symbolizes the desire to find herself, to escape from the world convention.
. In the novel 'The Promised Land' ( "Ziemia obiecana", 1899) P
. refuses naturalistic and symbolist techniques of his first books and elect a naive realist style to portray the ruthless world of industrialization. In the 'Promised Land', . as noted by the Polish-born American critic Jerzy Krzyzanowski, . writer 'has shown itself a mature master, . fluent writing technique and capable of applying this technique to write on a large scale of works and ideas',
. This 'novel without a hero' depicts the life and tells of the machinations of textile magnates from Lodz. In the novel, which shows the predatory nature of capitalism, the main character is the city itself.
In 1900-ies. R. got into the railway accident and received severe injuries, because of which he spent a year in the stillness. However, monetary compensation paid to management of the railway, provided the writer's financial independence and made it possible to devote himself to literature.
During illness P. begins work on his novel 'The peasants' ( "Chlopi"), telling about the life of Polish peasants and considered as the main product of the author. The first of four volumes of the novel appeared in 1902, when the writer went to Paris with his wife, nee Aurelio Shatsshnayder, whom he married in 1900, and the last 1909. In this novel, a chronicle describes the life of the peasants, the familiar R. childhood, with a broad picture of rural life is comparable in size and coloring with the works of Thomas Hardy and Emile Zola. History of father and son who came to love the same woman, Yagnu, written in high style of lyrical prose, giving a realistic narrative of a mythical character. From the perspective of the American critic Joseph Wood Kratie, the characters P. 'in some sense more, and in some sense less than the individual, and he sees them as a natural phenomenon, part of a huge ... his unity with nature is something pantheistic '. 'Guys', the product of a purely Polish spirit and color, however, is striking in its universality. Despite some vagueness, wordiness and deficiencies in the composition, the novel has been translated into several languages and brought the author international acclaim.
After the novel 'The peasants' P. written many books, but to repeat the success he was unable. Among the last works of the writer should make the novel 'The Dreamer' ( "Marzyciel", 1910), inspired by memories P. the search for his place in life, as well as the gothic novel 'The Vampire' ( "Wampir", 1911).
In 1914, Mr.. R. returned to Poland during World War II remains at home. During these years he wrote 'Year 1794' ( "Rok 1794", 1914 ... 1918), three-volume historical novel about the revolt against the Prussian and Russian rule, headed by the Polish patriot, Kosciuszko, General Tedeushem. Twice, in 1919 and 1920., P. visited the United States, and returned to Poland, he settled on his estate Kolachkovo.
P. received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1924. 'for an outstanding national epic - the novel' The peasants', who, according to the Swedish Academy member Per Halstrema, 'is written with such skill, such a sure hand that you can easily predict his long life in literature'. Owing to illness, the writer was unable to come to Stockholm, so the awards ceremony not held. In a brief address P. wrote 'In 1922 1923 he. I started having pain in my heart. I still have something to say and want to say, really want, but it will smertN '. A year later, 5 December 1925, P. died in Warsaw.
After his death his popularity in the West fell, his works are known mainly to specialists. Nevertheless, in the Polish literature P. prominently Many researchers share the view of the English critic Martin Seymour-Smith, who believed that the novel 'The peasants' 'peasant life depicted excellent' and that creativity P. 'deserves careful study outside Poland. "