Seifert (Seifert), Jaroslav( Czech poet, Nobel Prize for Literature, 1984)
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Biography Seifert (Seifert), Jaroslav
September 23, 1901, Mr.. - 10 January 1986
Czech poet Jaroslav Seifert was born in е+iе+kov, a suburb of Prague, the capital of the Czech Republic, which by then in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. His father, who at one time was a factory worker, became manager of small shops selling groceries, clothing, crafts and paintings by local artists. Boy with. carried the goods throughout Prague, which allowed him to thoroughly explore the city, who was one of the richest cultural, architectural and musical centers of Europe. Discover Prague could not have influence on his poetry.
Although Yaroslav was a diligent student and not even graduated from school, he nevertheless studied literature, music and foreign languages. An energetic and capable, with. already in the 20-year old became the editor of several periodicals, translator of French and Russian literature, as well as printing so. At the end of the First World War, when the Czech Republic withdrew from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, with. began his professional career as a journalist in a newspaper of the Communist Party 'Rude Pravo', has also worked in the publishing house of the Communist Party and in the bookstore. Like many Czechs, C. enthusiastically greeted the Russian revolution in 1917
In 1920, Mr.. Liberal Tomas Masaryk was elected president of Czechoslovakia, became a constitutional republic with a democratic parliamentary system of government. In the same year with. founded the avant-garde literary circle 'Group of nine', who was under the influence of French poet Guillaume Apollinaire and the Dadaists, and committed to the aesthetics of 'poetic style'. Using associative thinking and surreal images, experimenting with the syntax and logic, emphasizing the visual impact of normal subjects, P. and other writers 'group of nine' sought to create poetic works that would stimulate not only the imagination, but life itself.
. Style 'poetic style' typical of earlier books C.: 'City in tears' ( 'Mesto v slzach', 1921), 'love itself' ( 'Sama laska', 1923), 'Honeymoon' ( 'Svatebni cesta', 1925 ), 'The Nightingale sings badly' ( 'Slavik zpiva spatne', 1926)
. Gradually, however, the themes of his works started to change. Revolutionary enthusiasm of the proletarian poetry gives way to disillusionment with the communist movement. In 1929, Mr.. S. out of the Communist Party of Stalin's guidance, publishes a manifesto criticizing the new censorship policy of the Communist Party, ceases publishing activities in political publications and enter into the Social-Democratic Party. Since then, the poet in his works drawn mainly to the universal values, writes about love, childhood, admires in his poems of female beauty, immersed in a world of memories. Continues With. and journalistic activities: collaborating with various Prague newspapers and magazines, becoming in 1930. theater editor of the monthly magazine 'New Stage' ( 'Nova Scena'), is still published in many periodicals.
In 30-ies. poetry with. acquires a new force, it is characterized by elation and natural language, a powerful lyric mood. The flowering of poetry with. coincided with the flourishing of democratic freedoms in Czechoslovakia at Masaryk. Death Masaryk (1937) and the elegy with. 'Eight days' ( 'Osm dni') marks the end of that period, when the poet could openly declare their political and aesthetic views. Under pressure from Hitler's Eduard Benes, who replaced his predecessor and teacher - Masaryk resigned as president, to power a pro-fascist government, and Czechoslovakia became a satellite of Germany.
. In the poetry collections 'in bright clothing' ( 'Svetlem odena', 1940), 'stone bridge' ( 'Kamenny most', 1944), 'helmet of clay' ( 'Prilba hliny', 1945) the poet touches themes of love and beauty, Czech history, implicitly condemns the war, Nazism and censorship
. In 'Helmet of clay' N. as a truly national poet glorifies the Paris uprising of 1945
After the war, when Czechoslovakia was under the influence of the USSR, with. returns to the themes that lie outside of politics, his poems are devoted to a happy childhood, the role of parents in the upbringing of children, love of unpretentious beauty, to find enduring values. In his book 'The Song of Viktorke' ( 'Pisen of Viktorce'.
1950), by novelist and critic Iozhef Shkvarechka called lyrical masterpiece SA, the poet is attempting to create a symbol of the Czech beauty. In the collections of Mozart in Prague '(' Mosart v Prage '.
1951) and 'Prague' ( 'Praha', 1958) extols the rich cultural heritage of the capital of Czechoslovakia - hometown of the poet. Merging these verses of the nobility and the people's origins can, according to some critics say the emergence of 'new mythology', capable of uniting the nation.
After Stalin's death in 1953. In Czechoslovakia, came ideological 'thaw', it became clear that many prominent writers and artists refuse to adopt the method of socialist realism. In 1956, Mr.. at the Congress of the Union of Czechoslovak Writers. made an appeal to seek freedom of creativity. Condemning the persecution of writers for their opinions, and the Communist Party - a dogmatic approach to literature, the poet proclaimed: 'If a writer is silent - he's lying'. Contrary to the assertions of the weakening of ideological pressure and censorship of the Communist Party of easing soon resumed its tight control over the seal, exposing the ban 'revisionist' works. However, a short period of 'thaw' was enough to C. drew the attention of the Nobel Committee.
In 60-ies. process of de-Stalinization in Czechoslovakia, is characterized by a number of social and political reforms. The culmination of social change was the Prague Spring in 1968, when the newly elected First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, Alexander Dubcek called for "socialism with a human face '. Censorship was abolished, . and the Czechoslovak Writers, . more freedom, . than their counterparts in Eastern Europe, . led the movement for the revival of democracy and issued a manifesto, . which was named '2000 Words' and to condemn the abuse of the former government,
. Role With. in the preparation of this document is not certain.
In August 1968,. The Soviet Union, alarmed by the brazen challenge to Communist ideology, carried out the invasion of Czechoslovakia, which put an end to reform government Dubcek. In 1969. S. was elected president of the Writers' Union of Czechoslovakia, but a year later for refusing to support the censorship was lifted. Then the books. began to disappear from the shelves of bookstores. In the 70-ies. His works are distributed in the country illegally, in the form of so-called samizdat (typewritten and multiplied by means quick printing sheets). During these years the poet once again moving away from politics, wrote about a bygone youth, eternal beauty, the love of a woman, about spirituality in the industrial world, on the whims of poetry. In 1977. S. returned to political life: Among 500 Czech writers poet puts his signature under the Charter of Human Rights, . condemning 'illegal imprisonment "of their comrades of the pen and called for compliance with the ruling circles of the Constitution of the Republic of Czechoslovakia and the Helsinki Accords.,
. In the same year, Poetry S., . literary career which lasted more than half a century, . was first available in English-speaking readers, . first appeared in translation in the 'London Magazine' ( 'London Magazine'), . then 'Hampden-Sydney poetri Review' ( 'Hampden-Sydney Poetry Review', . USA),
. By 1983, Mr.. English came three collections of the poet: 'Casting bells' ( 'Odlevani zvonu', 1967), 'Monument plague' ( 'Morovy sloup', 1967) and 'Umbrella with the Piccadilly' ( 'Destnik z Piccadilly', 1979).
With. was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature 1984. 'for poetry, which differs with freshness, sensuality and imagination, and demonstrates the independence of spirit and all-rounder'. As health. unable to participate in an awards ceremony at which the poet was represented by his daughter Yana Seyfert. Member of the Swedish Academy Lara Yyullensten remarked that poetry with. different 'ease, melody, rhythm and inventiveness, in his poetry is combined with a sense of playfulness'. Next, referring to the fact that C. has mastered the complex poetic form that he was much in common with European modernism, the avant-garde poetry, Yyullensten said: 'With. no means a naive artist '.
In Czechoslovakia, the award with. Nobel Prize in every way suppressed, but after a campaign in the Western press, the government was forced to admit officially, that a citizen of Czechoslovakia, was awarded the Nobel Prize. Although the Czechoslovak legislation prohibits the publication is not permitted by the censor works of the Nobel Lecture. not gone unnoticed, as was published in the West. Referring to the long struggle for the independence of Czechoslovakia, C. in his lecture said: "Our language has become for us the most important means of expressing national identity ... Poetry occupies a very important place in our cultural life. Language poetry - is not only an opportunity to talk to people on the souls, it is still our refuge, where we hide from the dangers that are sometimes even afraid to call '.
In 1985, when C. became the first Czech writer to be awarded the honorary degree of the American College of Hampden-Sydney (Virginia), he was allowed to write on this occasion, a speech that did not pass censorship. The award was presented with. Prague American poet Galway Kinnellom. 'Often my poetry spontaneously invades events, . witness or a party where I happened to be, . obeying the restless beating of the heart, . which, . It seems to me, . never remain indifferent ', . - Said in the speech S., . which reminded, . that 'poetry should not lose their native cordiality, . constantly reminding people of their existence on Earth '.,
. Died with
. in 1986. of a heart attack in a small house near Prague, where nearly all his life he lived with his wife Mary, whom he married again in 1928. (from this marriage they had a son and daughter).
Currently, poetry with. studied literary historians of different countries. In Czechoslovakia, his books were a limited edition, which immediately disagreed, and not republished. Works With. continue to be translated into English, although the Czech poet Miroslav Holub noted that the 'musical and verbal game. make it virtually non-transferable poems in English '. Carefully developing the technique of verse, C. created his own style, and allegorical meaningful. However, the Czech reader, apparently, enjoys a bright, even transparent poetry SA, which is proving to be complex, many-valued. In the preface to the translation 'Monument plague' American critic William Harkins wrote: 'In. has long been considered the most distinguished of the Czech poets - it may very well be that he deserves the epithet "great" '.