Sillanpöãöã France( Finnish novelist, Nobel Prize for Literature, 1939)
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Biography Sillanpöãöã France
September 16, 1888, Mr.. - June 3, 1964
Finnish novelist Frans Emil Sillanpöãöã was born into a peasant family in Hyamenkyure, south-western Finland. Following local custom, his father, Frans Koskinen, took his surname from the name of the place where he lived: Sillanpöãöã (literally - 'bridgehead', 'platsdarom'). For more than ten years before his marriage to Louise Wilhelmina Iisaksdotter Senior Sillanpöãöã moved to Hyamenkyure, where from generation to generation, lived a family of his future wife. Being married, he built a small farm, where the future writer was born. Older brother and sister with. died in childhood.
Parents are poor people, yet accumulated enough money to France could go to secondary school in Tampere. He studied diligently and received a scholarship that enabled him in 1908. enter the University of Helsinki, where he studied biology, intending to become a doctor. At the same time he became acquainted with famous people in the city, visited Yernfeltsov, representatives of literary and artistic bohemia. Although C. never finished university, studying biology, convinced him that human behavior is motivated biologically.
The University P. I read a lot, especially fond of Strindberg, Maeterlinck and Hamsun, even says that 'Pan' and 'Victoria' are at it opyanyayusche. Literature was for C. exit from harassing his psychological problems, his first short stories he published in metropolitan newspapers and magazines in the years of study and quickly became known.
In 1913, Mr.. S. drop out of university, returns home and begins to write. His first novel 'The Sun and life' ( 'Elama ja aurinko') was published in 1916. Subsequently, C. laughingly told how his publisher, to make him finish the novel, locked the hapless author in a hotel room. 'The Sun and life', which tells about the summer adventures of three young men and two women, received positive reviews and, according to a Finnish critic Lauri Viljanen, was 'the first novel is extremely well'
In 1916, Mr.. S. married Sigrid Salomyaki Mary, the daughter of a farmer from a neighboring village, they had eight children, one of whom died in childhood.
In 1917, the year when Finland gained its independence, comes with a collection of short stories. 'Children in the march of human life' ( 'Ihmislapsia elaman saatossa'), and in 1919. - The first major work of the writer, the novel 'Righteous poverty' ( 'Hurskas kurjuus'), inspired by the tragic events of the civil war in Finland.
. In the 'righteous poverty' C., the first Finnish writer, realized the horror of fighting between the 'red' and 'white', not getting up on anybody's side, he clearly demonstrated the brutality, suffering and pain of those years
. Although the modern reader a novel can seem monotonous and inexpressive, in 1919. it was a success, was greeted with interest and understanding. The novel, in which C. depicted with a fearless objectivity and 'white' and 'red', is the first step in pulling out of the crisis, he helped the Finns to recover from a grave mental trauma, and in 1920,. S. receives from the Government of Finland lifelong scholarship.
In subsequent years, with. produces several collections of short stories, . including 'Hilti and Ragnar' ( 'Hiltu ja Ragnar', . 1923), . 'Under the protection of angels' ( 'Enkelten suojatit' 1923), . 'On the ground' ( 'Maan tasalta' 1924), . 'House in the mountains' ( 'Tollinmaki' 1925), . 'Communion' ( 'Rippi', . 1928) and 'Thank you, . Lord, . for these moments ... ' ( 'Kiitos hetkista, . Herra ... ', . 1930), . by which becomes known not only in Finland, . but also in other Nordic countries,
. But the most successfully used his novel 'dead in his youth' ( 'Nuorena Nukkunut' 1931), which brought the writer a European glory.
In the center of the novel quiet life and death of a lonely young girl from a noble but impoverished family. Nature thin and clean, which preserves the goodness and gentleness, despite the many adversities, the heroine does not fit into their environment. Particularly successful in the character of a girl writer and a description of the nature. American writer and translator Phillips Carlton in reviews l933 g. remarked: 'A person is independent, she lives her life like a distant, unknown planet, moving in its orbit. The result is a revaluation of values: as the narrative of the outside world seemed to fade, but the heroine's illusions come to the fore ... ' 'Novel - continues Carlton - an ad hoc way, unforgettable beauty of language'.
. Simultaneously with the novel 'dead in his youth' wrote the novel 'The way men' ( 'Miehen tie'), published in 1932
. Historian of literature Jaakko Ahokas compared the novel with the works of English writer Az. Lawrence. However, as noted by Ahokas, 'both authors, there is the relationship between seasons and the changes in people's lives. In the novel C. feel the breath of the epic ... '
'People in A Midsummer Night' ( 'Ihmiset suviyossa', 1934) is considered the main product with. and is often compared with a poem in prose, because of the fuzziness of the composition and heightened emotion. Ahokas believes that 'People in A Midsummer Night' - 'the most thoughtful and sophisticated of the writer's works', noting that 'the biological concept of time affects the way the narrative, the passage of time is perceived by different characters in different ways'. Viljanen, even more highly appreciated the novel, notes that 'few people can from a tiny embryo - in this case, a small village - to grow complex, multi-valued, boundless in its spiritual manifestations of life'. 'N. - ... A poetic dreamer, whose tender lyricism combined with a keen intellectual analysis ... '
In 1939, Mr.. S. in a state of severe depression, caused, apparently, the death of his wife, the beginning of the Second World War, as well as the war between Finland and the Soviet Union. In the same year, a writer married to Anna Armia von Herzen, but the marriage was brief and unhappy.
In this complex to C. and his country, he received the Nobel Prize for Literature 1939. 'for insight into the life of Finnish peasants, and an excellent description of their customs and connection with nature'. Due to the awarding ceremony of the war was not carried out, but with. received a medal and a diploma winner at the meeting of the Swedish Academy in December 1939. In his speech, Per Halstrem expressed sympathy for the Finnish people on behalf of the members of the academy, saying, 'We are full of admiration not only you but also your people ...'
Even in 1930, at C. first signs of intellectual and emotional crisis, when the writer felt that the creative forces withdraw his. Despite the award of the Nobel Prize, the writer is in the doldrums, and from 1940 to 1943. in a psychiatric clinic, but continues to write. 'August' ( 'Elokuu', . 1941) and 'Beauty and the suffering of human life' ( 'Ihmiselon ihanuus ja kurjuus', . 1945) differ deep pessimism, . the heroes of these works - the unfortunate writers and poets, . consider themselves the underdogs, . - Motive, . certainly, . autobiographical.,
. Last book the writer began a three-volume memoirs, which included 'The guy lived his life' ( 'Poika eli elamaansa', 1953), 'I told him and depict' ( 'Kerron ja kuvailen', 1955) and 'main event of the day' ( 'Paiva korkeimmillaan' , 1956)
. Tall, broad-shouldered man, bald and bearded, with a predilection for alcohol,. finally became in those years a favorite of the nation, its patriarch, who was confirmed for the nickname Grandpa. In the last years of his life the writer is often performed on radio and enjoyed great popularity. S. died Helsenki in 1964
. Lauri Viljanen wrote about the literary achievements S.: 'No one Finnish writer has not yet been able to' observe 'the finest events on the street in the village, in huts and tents, at any time of day or night, holidays and weekdays
. It would hardly be an exaggeration to say that as a psychologist with. - A unique phenomenon in European prose '. Finnish critic and essayist Kai Laitinen pointed out that 'for C. man is a part of nature: in his heroes, there is tremendous life force, the force by which trees and animals are born ... '