SOLZHENITSYN Solzhenitsyn( Russian novelist, dramatist and poet, Nobel Prize for Literature, 1970)
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Biography SOLZHENITSYN Solzhenitsyn
Russian novelist, dramatist and poet Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn was born Dec. 11, 1918 in Kislovodsk, Northern Caucasus. While Solzhenitsyn's parents came from the peasants, they received a good education.
When the First World War, his father, Isai Solzhenitsyn, who resigned from the Moscow University as a volunteer at the front, three times awarded for bravery and was killed on a hunt for six months before the birth of son. To feed themselves and Alexander, Alexander's mother, Tais Z. (nee Shcherbak), after the death of her husband went to work as a typist, and when the boy was six years old, she moved with her son in Rostov-na-Donu. Early years Solzhenitsyn coincided with the establishment and consolidation of Soviet power. In the year of his birth in Russia has started a bloody civil war that ended in victory for the Bolsheviks under Lenin's leadership.
Successfully graduated from school, Solzhenitsyn in 1938. arrives in Rostov University, where, despite the interest in literature, the physics and mathematics, to continue to provide a permanent earnings. In 1940. He married his classmate Natalie Reshetovskaya, and in 1941, receiving a degree mathematics, finishes and extra-mural department of the Institute of Philosophy, Literature and History in Moscow.
. After graduation, Solzhenitsyn served as a teacher of mathematics at Rostov secondary school
. In 1941, when the war broke out with Nazi Germany, he was mobilized and served in the artillery. In February 1945,. Solzhenitsyn was suddenly arrested, deprived of the rank of captain and sent to Moscow, the investigative prison on Lubyanka. The Tribunal of three men sentenced to 8 years in prison followed by exile in Siberia for anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda: in the hands of the NKVD were Solzhenitsyn's letter to a friend in their attacks on Stalin, . as well as sketches and drafts of stories, . found during a search of his officer's plate.,
. During the year, the future writer was in a Moscow prison, then was transferred to Marfino, a specialized prison near Moscow, where mathematicians, physicists, other scientists conducted secret research
. Years later, Solzhenitsyn says that mathematics degree, in fact, saved lives, because the regime in Marfinskiy prison was not an example milder than in other Soviet prisons and camps.
. From specialized prison Marfino Solzhenitsyn moved to Kazakhstan, a camp for political prisoners, where the future writer diagnosed with cancer of the stomach and felt doomed
. However, freed March 5, 1953, Mr.. (day of death of Stalin), Solzhenitsyn is successful radiation therapy in the Tashkent hospital and is recovering.
Until 1956. he lives in exile in various parts of Siberia, teaching in schools, and in June 1957, after rehabilitation, settled in Ryazan, where she also worked as a mathematics teacher in secondary school. His wife, who, until the writer was imprisoned, married, was divorced and returned to Solzhenitsyn.
In 1956, Mr.. Soviet leader H. C. Khrushchev began a campaign of de-Stalinization, the fight against 'the personality cult of Stalin, who, according to conservative estimates, since the early 30-ies. destroyed and repressed more than 10 million. Soviet people. Khrushchev personally authorized the publication of Solzhenitsyn's One Day of Ivan Denisovich ', saw the light in 1962. in the journal 'New World'. Written in a realistic manner, lively, accessible language first book, the writer tells of a camp day hero, prisoner Ivan Denisovich Shukhov, on whose behalf the narrator. The story was critically acclaimed, compare 'One Day' with 'House of the Dead' Dostoyevsky.
A year later Solzhenitsyn was published in the 'New World' a few stories in t.ch. 'Incident at Krechetovka Station', 'Matryona' and 'For the good of the cause'. The writer was even nominated for the Lenin Prize for Literature in 1964, but the rewards are not received, and after the liberation of H. S. Khrushchev from their posts stopped printing. Last published in the USSR, Solzhenitsyn's works became the story 'Zakhar-Kalita' (1966).
Once the writer in 1967. Writers' Congress has sent an open letter urging an end to censorship and said that the KGB had confiscated his manuscripts, Solzhenitsyn was persecuted and harassed newspaper, his works were banned. Nevertheless, the novels' The First Circle (1968) and Cancer Ward (1968 ... 1969) come to the West and go there without the consent of the author, that only exacerbates an already difficult situation at home Solzhenitsyn. The writer refused to be responsible for the publication of his works abroad, and said that the authorities have contributed to the export of manuscripts from the country that was a pretext for his arrest.
. 'The First Circle' (in the title contains an allusion to the first circle of Dante's Inferno) - primarily a satirical novel whose action takes place in a specialized institution, prison Mavrino analogue of where in the late 40-ies
. kept Solzhenitsyn. Many Western critics praised the novel for a broad panorama and depth, unbiased analysis of the Stalinist reality. The writer's second novel, Cancer Ward, is also autobiographical in nature: the hero of the novel, Rusanov, both in time and the author himself, treated for cancer in the Middle provincial hospital. Although the 'Cancer Ward' visible and political focus, the main theme of the novel - the struggle of man with death: a writer holds the idea that the victims of the deadly disease, paradoxically, seeking freedom, which are deprived of healthy people.
. In 1970
. Solzhenitsyn was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature 'for the moral force, taken from the tradition of great Russian literature'. Learning to award him the prize, a writer once said that he intends to receive the award 'in person, on the date'. However, . as 12 years ago, . when the Nobel Prize has been awarded another Russian writer, . Pasternak, . Soviet government considered the decision of the Nobel Committee 'political hostility', . and Solzhenitsyn, . fear, . that after his visit, he will not be able to return home, . gratefully accepted the high reward, . but the ceremony was not present,
In a speech a member of the Swedish Academy, Karl Ragnar Gierow said that Solzhenitsyn's works show 'invincible dignity of man'. Mindful of the persecution of a writer at home, . Gierow also said: 'Wherever, . for whatever reason, human dignity is threatened, . Solzhenitsyn's works, . is not only the prosecution persecutors of freedom, . but a warning: such actions are causing damage primarily to themselves',
. In his Nobel lecture Solzhenitsyn, published in 1972, contains a favorite idea of the writer that the artist - this is the last guardian of the truth. Nobel Lecture, the writer concludes: 'One word of truth the whole world would chip'.
A year after receiving the Nobel Prize Solzhenitsyn authorized the publication of his works abroad, and in 1972. in the London publishing house in the English language goes 'August fourteenth' - the first book of a multivolume saga of Russian revolution, which is often compared to 'War and Peace' Tolstoy. In 'August fourteenth', according to the American researcher, Patricia Blake, 'brilliantly shows the effect of war on individual lives, on the whole nation as a whole'.
In 1973, Mr.. after questioning typists KGB seized the manuscript of the main works of Solzhenitsyn's 'Gulag Archipelago, 1918 ... 1956: Experience the artistic research'. Working memory, . as well as using their own records, . that he was in the camps and in exile, . Solzhenitsyn set out to recreate the officially non-existent Soviet history, . honor the memory of millions of Soviet prisoners, . 'pounded the camp dust',
. Under the 'Gulag Archipelago' refers to prisons, labor camps and settlements for the exiles, scattered throughout the USSR. In his book, the writer enjoys the memories, oral and written testimonies of more than 200 prisoners, whom he met in prison.
. Soon after the confiscation of the manuscript Solzhenitsyn contacted his publisher in Paris, and ordered to be put into place a set of exported copy of 'Archipelago', which was released in December 1973 and February 12, 1974, Mr.
. writer was arrested, accused of treason, stripped of his Soviet citizenship and deported to Germany.
His second wife, Natalya Svetlova, which Solzhenitsyn was married in 1973. after her divorce from first wife, three sons were allowed to join her husband later. After two years in Zurich, the writer and his family moved to the United States and settled in Vermont, . which completes the third volume of 'The Gulag Archipelago' (Russian edition - 1976, . English - 1978), . and continues to work on a cycle of historical novels about the Russian Revolution, . started 'August Fourteenth' and named 'The Red Wheel', . - In the words of Solzhenitsyn himself 'tragic history that, . themselves as Russian ..,
. destroyed and their past. and its future ', In 1972. writer noticed that over the cycle 'may take 20 years, and I may not live'.
Since moving Solzhenitsyn to the West about his name waged a violent polemic, and his reputation fluctuated depending on its expression. So, . in connection with his appeal on the occasion of awarding him the honorary degree to the students of Harvard University in 1978, . in which the writer denounced the materialism of the capitalist West as sharply, . as the repression of the socialist East, . Solzhenitsyn's opponents called him a 'utopian reactionary',
. The works of writer also caused far unambiguous assessment.
Despite the fact that Solzhenitsyn lived in the United States about 20 years, granting American citizenship he had not asked. With the press and the public rarely talked, because of what passed for "Vermont recluse". Criticized both the Soviet regime, and the American reality.
After 20 years of exile in Germany, the United States and in France published a large number of works. In the USSR, Solzhenitsyn's works were published only since late 1980. In 1989, the journal Novy Mir, the first official publication of excerpts from the novel "The Gulag Archipelago".
August 16, 1990 decree of the President of the USSR Solzhenitsyn's Soviet citizenship was restored Solzhenitsyn. In 1990 his book "The Gulag Archipelago," Solzhenitsyn was awarded the State Prize. May 27, 1994 the writer returned to Russia. In 1997 elected a member of the Academy of Sciences of Russia.
. December 11, 1998 President of Russia Boris Yeltsin signed a decree on awarding of Alexander Solzhenitsyn, . celebrating this day his eightieth birthday, . Order of St. Andrew for Outstanding Service to the Fatherland and a great contribution to world literature,
. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn refused the order, stating the following: 'From the supreme power that has led Russia to its current perilous state, I accept the award can not' - and added: "Maybe a little time this award will take my sons'.
. In 1998 he was awarded the Grand Gold Medal M
. V. University.
In 2001, Solzhenitsyn was, after a decade of Labor published the first volume of his new book "Two Hundred Years Together" - on the history of Jews in Russia. This is a scientific and historical work (from the author's intention) of many intellectuals plunged in the torpor. They could not understand why the writer took once again to touch the problem of Russian-Jewish relations.
In the press book has received conflicting assessments. Some thought that this time from the pen of the famous writer's went a passionate manifesto of the "Russian soil" enlightened ". Others accused him that he was "too soft to the Jews, and he lacks firmness". Others called the book openly anti-Semitic. Solzhenitsyn himself, emphasizing the objectivity of coverage of topics in an interview said: "I could not write this book, if not inspired by both parties"
. Trying to influence the policy of modern Russia, met with President Yeltsin (1994) and President Putin (2000)
. In 2006 he was awarded the State Prize of Russia for his outstanding achievements in the field of humanitarian action.
. The death occurred at 23:45 Moscow time. The funeral will be held August 6 at the Donskoy Monastery cemetery. Place of burial Solzhenitsyn chose himself for five years before his death, having received a blessing of Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Alexy II, svyaschennoarhimandrita this monastery.
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