WHITE Patrick( Australian writer, Nobel Prize for Literature, 1973)
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Biography WHITE Patrick
genus. May 28, 1912
Australian writer Patrick Victor Martindale White was born in England in the family of Ruth (Uidikom) and Victor White, a wealthy Australians, who at that time to travel around Europe. When he returned six months after giving birth at home, they settled in Sydney, where the future writer was educated and where his younger sister was born.
. At the age of thirteen Patrick sent to study in England, in Cheltenham, where the classroom teacher surprised and frustrated by 'strange' tastes of the boy, carried away the plays of Ibsen and Strindberg
. Patrick was able to persuade their parents to give him the opportunity to return to Australia before joining the University of Cambridge 'work on earth'. Within two years he worked as a 'dzhakero' (cowboys, drovers of cattle) and begins to write. At home after training abroad, he feels uncomfortable and in 1932. returned to England, arrives at King's College, Cambridge, where he studied English, German and French literature, and conducts a vacation in France and Germany, perfect in knowledge of languages.
The first publication I. - A collection of poems that have no precise dating, but written before 1930. After receiving his Bachelor of Arts, University of Cambridge in 1935. U. going to London, where he lives in a modest content of father. In the same year he published a book of poems I. 'Plowman and other poems' ( 'The Ploughman and Other Poems'). He also wrote several plays (and it remained unpublished), sketches for theater magazines, short stories. His first novel, 'Happy Valley' ( 'Happy Valley'), was released in London in 1939. and in 1940. in the United States, published by 'Vayking-press'.
In the first months of World War I. released his second novel, 'The Living and the Dead' ( 'The Living and the Dead', 1941), which was set in London in 10 ... 30-ies. During the war, the writer is in the exploration of the RAF in the Middle East and in Greece.
After the war. wrote two plays: 'Return to Abyssinia' ( 'Return to Abyssinia') and 'False funeral' ( 'The Ham Funeral'). The first piece, now forgotten, briefly played in London, and the second was delivered only in 1961. in Adelaide (Australia). Third novel, the writer, 'Tetushkin history' ( 'The Aunt's Story', 1948), has received positive reviews in the United States and Britain, but Australia went almost unnoticed. In the center of the novel, the first truly major writer's works, is Theodore Goodman, which is immersed in his inner world, and eventually goes mad. Australian critic P. Brissenden noted that 'Theodore Goodman became the first psychic I. ... endowed and blessed at the same time cursed the ability to see hidden ... intuitive, which lets you see what a world of ordinary, imperfect, lies another world - a world of infinite order and beauty '.
Tired of London and feeling the need to find a more reliable income than a writer's work, I. back in 1946. in Australia with a friend, a Greek artist Manolis Lascaris, where over the next eighteen years, living almost without a break in Castle Hill, a suburb of Sydney, growing and selling flowers, vegetables, milk and cream. The failure of the novel 'Tetushkin history' in Australia, the inability to implement staging 'fake funeral' of deprivation that have plagued the writer in the first years at Castle Hill, involuntarily aroused in him the idea of 'it will no longer write a single word'. In 1951, Mr.. W., however, begins the novel 'The Tree of the human' ( 'The Tree of Man'), published in 1955. in the United States, and shortly thereafter, and in England and brought him great success. R. Brissenden wrote: "Reviewers called 'Tree' great novel, and Y. - Great novelist '. Critics have compared the. by Thomas Hardy, A. Tolstoy and Az. Lawrence.
'The Tree of the human' is a long family saga about a man and woman who built a farm in the Australian desert, bear children, then the grandchildren, but in the end their land was built up urban homes. In the life of ordinary people, the pioneers who have. feels the importance, the greatness of human life in general.
The prototype of the novel 'Voss' ( 'Voss', 1957), is also considered to be one of the best books of the U., was Ludwig Leyhart, traveler, disappeared in 1848. while attempting to cross Australia from east to west. According Brissendena, 'Fosse' - an attempt to penetrate the psychology of the traveler, in addition, it is also valued allegory, parable, in which Y. shows how the human heart there is a struggle between pride and humility, faith in yourself and faith in God ... the author tries to break through to the spiritual center of the Australian society, just like his hero, Foss, making its way to the geographical center of the Australian continent '.
. In the novel 'traveling in a chariot' ( 'Riders in the Chariot', . 1961) shows four loser, . become outcasts in a prosperous society fictional suburb of one of Australian cities Sarsaparilla, . which also launched the first collection of short stories have elected,
. 'Burned' ( 'The Burnt Ones', 1964). In the book 'Four Pieces' (' Four Plays'), published in 1965, included 'Season in Sarsaparille' ( 'The Season at Sarsaparilla'), 'cheerful soul' ( 'A Cheery Soul'), 'Night on Bald grief '(' Night on Bald Mountain ') and the play 1948. 'Fake funeral', and the action of the first two plays also occurs in Sarsaparille, and 'Night on Bald Mountain' - a touching poetic drama, depicting a society on the verge of collapse.
. Sarsaparilla was also the site of action of the novel 'Amulet' ( 'The Solid Mandala', 1966) - history of the twin brothers Waldo and Arthur, spiritual antipodes
. Cold intellectual Waldo heartily hates his brother, he never succeeds neither in literature nor in love. His brother Arthur - 'simple soul', a dreamer and visionary, 'not of this world', which as a charm holds four glass balls - a symbol of the mysteries of life and love. At the U., author of 'Amulet', a work saturated with religious and psychological motives, has a certain influence Swiss psychologist Carl Gustav Jung. In 'Amulet', according to 'The Times Literary sapplment' ( 'Times Literary Supplement'), 'U. sees eternity like a huge ring of endless light '.
In the novel 'Vivisektor' ( 'The Vivisectors', 1970) shows how the artist Hartl Duffield seeks mystical forces beyond their everyday. In the novel 'The Eye of the storm' ( 'The Eye of the Storm', 1973) the heroine Elizabeth Hunter is the meaning of existence in death, as it had been with her before, during a typhoon on the coast of Queensland. 'The meaning of this book - as noted by Robert Philip in' public good '(' Commonweal '), - very simple. We are all alone in the chaos of life, and only we ourselves can not help myself ... All others - predators who hinder rather than help to live '.
Y. received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1973. 'for an epic and psychological skills, which led to open a new literary continent'. In a speech a member of the Swedish Academy of Arthur Lundquist noted that, although. 'constantly questioned the possibility of thought and art, and both are always present in his works'. W., who lived a closed life and to avoid any advertising, at the awards ceremony was. Nobel Prize he received for Australian artist Sidney Nolan.
In 1974. released a compilation of short stories have. 'Parrots' ( 'The Cockatoos'), a two years later - the novel 'The fringe of the leaves' ( 'A Fringe of Leaves'), which is based on the true story of Eliza Fraser, who in 1836, Mr.. got in a shipwreck on the Great Barrier Reef. According to the British critic William Walsh, the novel reflects "an attempt to mediocre, good and touching, but not very talented women to make up for whatever has been lost, what would it at all costs'. In 'History of Australian Literature' ( 'The Oxford History of Australian Literature') states that the 70-ies. U. entered in 'new phase ... marked allusive language, ambiguity and complexity of the world picture '.
Product y. recent years are the novel 'The thing Tvayborna' ( 'The Twyborn Affair', . 1979), . play 'big toys' ( 'Big Toys', . 1977), . written explanation of his own novel 'Night Thief' ( 'The Night Prowler'), . as well as the play 'A brilliant driver' ( 'Signal Driver', . 1982) and 'undergrowth' ( 'Netherwood', . 1983),
. In 1984. published autobiography U. 'Cracks in the glass' ( 'Flaws in the Glass'), and in 1986. - Novel 'a great deal about a' ( 'Memoirs of Many in One'), the history of life and amorous adventures of Alex Xenophon Demirzhyana Gray, written in the form of fragments from a diary.
. Despite the fact that collections of short stories writer 'Burned' and 'Parrots' received high marks from reviewers, John Alfred Evant, wrote that' genre novels have never been and will not have a genre
. '. This opinion is shared by John Weygel, who praised the sense of spoken language have. the playwright, but noted that 'the play U., unlike his novels, not made in the literature is nothing new'.
. From the perspective of the English literary critic George Steiner, 'the combination of the smallest detail with a lot of time in layers, nervous spasms with thick-skinned, European, Australian depth scale - these are constant motifs have
. '. 'U., - Steiner wrote, - is a modern virtuoso of the grotesque, and virtuosity often leads to ostentatious'. However, admirers of William, as, for example, William Walsh, who find that the writer's works vary the size and coloring, bribe 'greatness of spirit, boundless self-confidence, a powerful creative energy'.