Sigrid Undset (Undset Sigrid)( Norwegian writer, Nobel Prize for Literature, 1928)
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Biography Sigrid Undset (Undset Sigrid)
May 20, 1882, Mr.. - June 10, 1949
Norwegian novelist Sigrid Undset was born in Kalundborg, Denmark, and was the eldest of three daughters in the family of the famous Norwegian archaeologist Ingvalda Martin Undset and Anna nee Charlotte Give, the Danish. When Sigrid was two years old, the family moved to Christiania (now Oslo), the capital of Norway, where Ingvald Undset was appointed director of the Museum of Antiquities. Subsequently, Sigrid remembered as just a little girl playing with museum exhibits, in the future it more than once helped his father in museum work.
. Hoping that will be Sigrid study science, the parents sent her to school with a coeducational, but the girl was not to the soul of liberalism prevailed there, and, after his father's death in 1893, Mr.
. she went to a commercial college.
Because of the difficult material situation of the family and the need to educate the sisters Sigrid went to work with 17 years as a clerk in the electrical company. In my spare time I. read a lot, especially the Norwegian sagas, which introduced her father and who had a major influence on her art, was interested in botany and also painting and began to write.
In 1905, Mr.. manuscript of the first, a historical novel Y. was returned to publishing with the following note: 'Do not write more historical novels ... Try to write something modern '. Followed this advice, she turned to themes of contemporary life marriage, motherhood and relationships in contemporary Oslo - in the novel 'Fru Marta Ouli' ( "Fru Marta Oulie", 1907). The following year he published a collection of short stories have. 'Happy age ( "Den lykkelige alder"), in the center of which are talented, but separated from a woman's life second novel Y. 'Viga-Lot and Vigtis' ( "Fortellingen of Viga-Ljot og Vigdis", 1909) was written in imitation of and explanations of Old Icelandic sagas. Appreciating the description of the Norwegian rural landscape, critics nonetheless rather reserved attitude to the first literary experiments of the writer.
Shortly after the publication of his second novel, I. receives state grant, . leaves office, . where she worked for ten years, . made a trip to Germany and Italy, and Rome fell in love with a Norwegian painter Anders Svarstad Kastesa, . married man, . who was older than her thirteen years,
. This feeling I. described in the next novel, 'Jenny' ( "Jenny", 1911), the history of the tragic love of a young woman, artistic nature, to a young man and his son. This autobiographical novel, which takes place in Norway and Italy, became the first successful novice author.
In 1912, Mr.. U. married Svarstad, . who divorced his wife, . and after the birth of their first son, they returned to Norway and lived at first in Ski, . and then on a farm near the small town of Lillehammer, . where the birth of their second son and mentally disabled daughter,
. S. 1912 to 1920. writer has released two collections of short stories, novel 'Spring' ( "Vaaren", 1914) and a collection of stories, 'Reflections in the mirror' ( "Splinten av troldspeilet", 1917). In 'Spring' is held idea that a compromise in marriage can lead to greater casualties than the illegitimate love. In the novels and stories depicted a woman with a strong character, which, as a rule, to cope with difficulties and hardships of modern life.
During World War I. questioned such the restructuring concept and flow of public life of Norway, as feminism, socialism, liberalism, pacifism. After a period of spiritual search is in accordance with their conservative views in 1924. Takes Catholicism, and in 1925. divorce her husband on the grounds that the Catholic Church does not recognize divorce Svarstad with his first wife, who was still alive.
Y. continues to study the history, making sure that 'only saints can explain the human desire for happiness, peace, justice and kindness'. The deep religiosity of the writer makes itself felt in its most famous trilogy 'Christine, . Lavransdatter '( "Knstm Lavransdatter"), . consisting of the novels 'crown' ( "Kransen", . 1920), . 'Mistress' ( "Husfrue", . 1922) and 'The Cross' ( "Korset", . 1922) In the center of the trilogy, . which takes place in Norway in the XIV., . is a proud and beautiful daughter of a wealthy landowner, . married to a dishonorable man, . tolerant of deprivation and hardship, and eventually dying during the plague.,
. Although the writer did not lead in the trilogy is no historical character, the atmosphere of medieval life passed very well
. In his review of 1923. critic Edwin Bjorkman noted that Norway is described in the XIV with such skill, it seems that the action is not six hundred years ago, and this morning, our yard '. Christine, as noted Bjorkman, may be 'fruit of the poetic imagination', but the novel does not sin nor the pathos or sentimentality. U. combined a modern method of psychological analysis of the narrative style of the Norwegian sagas, with their emphasis on plot rather than the narrator's discourse. American critic Alrik Gustafson in 1940. wrote that he was struck by the 'ease of writing, lack of literacy, deliberately ...'.
The basis of the next historical novel Y. went to the saga of Olaf, son Eudyuna; in its time it was this novel was rejected by metropolitan publishers. Consisting of two books - 'Owner Hestvikena' ( "Olav Audunsson i Hestvi-ken", . 1925) and 'Olaf and his children' ( "Olav Audunss0n og hans born", . 1927), . this novel, . like the trilogy 'Christine, . Lavransdatter ', . also a long history of medieval, . in which the misadventures of the characters are often the result of their excessive pride,
. Like many other critics, Gustafson believed that the epic of epic Olof yield of Christine, as 'it is more somber, more tragic and more didaktichen than the story of Christine'.
Y. was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature 1928. 'chiefly memorable description of the Scandinavian Middle Ages'. In a speech at the award ceremony, the representative of the Swedish Academy's Peter Halstrem followed a creative path W. from her early stories, in which 'she describes the life of [contemporary women] with compassion, but ruthless with the bluntness ... tells of their fate with irrefutable logic '. Halstrem elaborated on the concept of glory and honor in her books, as well as to describe the complex relationships between men and women. In conclusion, he called the winner of 'poetic genius, which draws its strength in the greatness and strength of spirit'. U. did not come from the Nobel lecture, saying in a brief acceptance speech, that 'it was easier to write than to speak, the more so - to talk about myself'.
The five novels that were released have. since being awarded the Nobel Prize and before the second world war, written about contemporary issues from the standpoint of a devout Catholic and inferior novels of the 20's - early 30-ies. as to color, and depth. During these years, I. wrote numerous articles that are included, in particular, the collection 'Milestones' ( "Etapper: Ny rcekke", 1933).
In 1939, Mr.. dying mother and the daughter of writer. When Norway in April 1940. was occupied by German troops, Y. joined the resistance movement, but soon was forced to flee to Sweden. The Nazis banned in Norway and Germany, its articles exposing racial intolerance and defend the religious beliefs. In September 1940. U. with his son Hans is sent to the United States, in New York, where he lived until the end of the war, lecturing, and liaising with in London by the Norwegian Government in Exile. Eldest son, W. Anders, died in Norway in April 1940. On his return at the end of the war at home have. was awarded the Grand Cross of the Order of St. Olav 'for outstanding achievements in literature and serve the people'. U. died of a stroke in Lillehammer in June 1949
Although works U., as early and late, read little, critics continue to appreciate the trilogy 'Kristin Lavransdatter', which since 20-ies. was reprinted in Norway and the U.S.. In 1940. Alrik Gustafson wrote that 'Of the modern writers have. yield, perhaps only Thomas Mann '. Gustafson also compared her to George Eliot and Walter Scott. In 1985, Mr.. A U.S. analyst. Medlikott praised the works of William, noting their modern focus and a trilogy called 'Kristin Lavransdatter' 'the greatest novel ... certainly one of the best in our century '.