Heidenstam Verner von (Heidenstam Verner von)( Swedish poet and novelist, Nobel Prize for Literature, 1916)
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Biography Heidenstam Verner von (Heidenstam Verner von)
July 6, 1859, Mr.. - May 20, 1940
Swedish poet and novelist Carl Gustaf Verner von Heidenstam born in Elshammare, on the shore of Lake Vцгttern in southern Sweden, the estate of his grandfather, the ancient aristocratic and rich family. His father, Nils Gustaf von Heidenstam, was an engineer and - like many in the family - the military, and his mother, Magdalena nee Charlotte Ryuttersheld, belonged to the local nobility. Werner, shy and physically weak boy, most of the year in Stockholm, and in the summer with his parents and numerous relatives traveled to Elshammar, which was read poetry and heroic sagas.
. In the hope that the climate of the Mediterranean would benefit her son, Werner's parents sent abroad
. Travel to the Middle East, Greece and Italy, young man, speaking his own words, 'in the most impressionable age with exposure to the cosmopolitan atmosphere of southern countries'. 'Instead of studying antiquity in the lecture halls of the provincial university, I trod the earth of the Athenian Acropolis. Rather than absorb the modern Christian culture, I head plunged into the East ', - recalled X. Back in 1880. in Sweden, X. married a Swiss Emilia Uggla. Definite plans for the future he was not, but the trip brought his interest in art, and his father decided to send a young man to study in Paris. X. with his young wife go first to Rome, and from there - in France, where Werner is engaged in painting the School of Fine Arts under the leadership of Jean Leon Gerome.
In the summer of 1886. X. his wife lived in Schloss Bryunegge, a medieval castle in the canton of Aargau, northern Switzerland, where the future poet acquainted with the playwright August Strindberg. While Strindberg was a few years older than X. and already enjoyed the reputation of the famous writer, the young men became friends and would talk for hours, discussing their creative plans, as well as trying to predict the future of Swedish literature and culture. Around the same time, X. realized that poetry and painting is not his true vocation.
In 1887, Mr.. X. returned to Sweden, settled in Elshammare, and a year later published his first collection of poems, 'Pilgrimage and years of wandering' ( "Vallfart och vandringsar"), which immediately brought him fame. Inspired by a trip around the Mediterranean, these poems are imbued with eastern exoticism and childhood memories. As wrote Stefan Bjork, 'criticism of attitudes, moral values, there is an undercurrent in his tales, parables and sketches of the eastern, whose sensuous, seductive colors caused enormous reader's interest'. In addition to the exotic and colorful, and catchy verses bribed, colorful imagery, contrasting with the dark naturalistic literature of that time.
During the next decade X. wrote many. Classical Mediterranean world was reflected in his novel 'Endymion' ( "Endymion", . 1889), . followed by the booklet 'Renaissance' ( "Renassans", . 1890), . literary manifesto, . where the writer criticizes the naturalism and calls for the creation of a new aesthetic, . based on imagination, . lively sense of beauty and daring, . but not decadent realism,
. These views were embodied in the 'Hans Alenuse' ( "Hans Alienus", 1892), a novel in prose and verse, which looked like a Faustian hero searches for the meaning of life. Three years after the death of his first wife (1893) X. married to Olga Wiberg, but the second marriage from the outset proved to be fragile, and ended in divorce. In 1900, Mr.. poet marries Gretta SjцTberg, which was almost twenty years younger than him.
Following the release of the second poetry collection X. 'Poems' ( "Dikter") so that it becomes a leading figure in Swedish literature. According to the American critic Alrick Gustafson, 'from' Poems' breathes optimism, felt a lofty, deep passion for life ... 'Lyrics' imbued with humanism, which is rooted in the historical memory of the poet, in his admiration for the heroic past of Sweden'.
Passion X. Swedish history, . attempt to create a new national myth is reflected in his most famous book, 'War, Charles XII' ( "Karolinerna", . 1897 ... 1898), . cycle of thematically linked stories about the soldiers of Charles XII, . in which Sweden has become a powerful European power,
. Portraying Karl uncompromising, ready to sacrifice a hero, who represents the moral ideal of the nation, X., according to Gustafson, indirectly exposes 'sharply criticized the materialism in the culture of Sweden at the turn of the XIX and XX centuries'.
. The Past Sweden devoted best books X
. The novel 'Pilgrimage to the Holy Birgitta' ( "Heliga Birgittas pilgrirnsfard", . 1901), . two-volume novel 'The Tree Folkungov' ( "Folkunga Tradet", . 1905 ... 1907) and a two-volume poem in prose 'The Swedes and their leaders' ( "Svenskarna och deras hovdingar", . 1908 ... 1910), . which derive the major historical figures of Sweden, . different deep idealism and patriotic spirit.,
. Working on these books, X
. gradually moving away from the radical ideas, which he held, while under the influence of progressive European thought and returned to the aristocratic world his childhood. When Strindberg, pretending to be in those years of progressive leadership of the working class, made in the press criticizing X. (1910), among the writers began a violent polemic. Subsequently, the opponents of X. nicknamed him 'the poet of the cadets' ( 'cadets' called conservative, militaristic-minded landowners of Prussia). The writer, in fact, actively defended the aristocracy.
Nevertheless, 'New Poems' ( "Nya Dikter", 1915) once again confirmed his reputation as an outstanding lyric poet of Sweden. In these strict classical poems, written between 1895 and 1910., Critics saw the clarity and penetration, which was not the slightest hint of acrimony, or the decline of his powers.
In 1916, Mr.. X. was awarded the Nobel Prize 'as a prominent representative of a new era in world literature'. Because of the ongoing First World War, an awards ceremony was not, in the official critical and biographical essay prepared for the Swedish Academy, the Swedish critic Sven SцTderman called X. 'the brightest star in the constellation of distinctive artists who have revived the Swedish poetry at the end of the last century'.
Since receiving the Nobel Prize before his death X. not issued any new book. True, the writer concluded 'When the chestnuts were in bloom' ( "Nar kastanjerna blommade"), somewhat idealized memories of childhood, published in 1941. after his death. In the 20-ies. X. built a house in Evralide, Lake Vцгttern, where he lived quietly and calmly to his death. X. died on 20 May 1940. aged 80.
In the period of creative flowering X. with Strindberg, his friend and later a political opponent, was considered the best poet of Sweden, however, when the writer died, interest in it declined and eventually disappeared altogether. Now his books out of the reader's items, and X. remembered mainly literary historians for his contribution to the development of modern Swedish poetry and prose.