HAYES Paul( German poet, novelist and short story writer Nobel Prize for Literature, 1910)
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Biography HAYES Paul
March 15, 1830, Mr.. - April 2, 1914
. The German poet, writer and novelist Paul Johann Ludwig Von Hayes was born in Berlin in the family of Karl Ludwig von Heyse, philologist, professor at Berlin University and his mother X., Julia (Zaaling) Hayes, was from the educated Jewish family
. It was from his mother, whom he later called the 'emotional, extremely bright' woman, X. borrowed imagination, passion to compose. In house X. frequented by famous scholars, writers, artists, among them - the art historian Franz Kugler, who became a mentor X.
At the University of Berlin X. studying classical literature and philology, and two years listening course in Romance Philology at the University of Bonn. Received in 1852,. Diploma of the University of Berlin, the future writer sent to Italy to continue his education. On this trip he stayed for a lifetime love of Italian nature and works of such Italian writers as Dante, Boccaccio, and Giacomo Leopardi. Italy X. begins to write - poems, plays, stories.
Future X. was defined in 1854, when King Maximilian II, offering more scholarships to a beginning writer, invited him to live in Munich and composed at the royal court. All obligations of X. amounted to participate in the rich intellectual life, which King helped in every way. Material secured to the end of life, X. able to marry Margaret Kugler, the daughter of his mentor, from a marriage to which the writer had four children. Later in life, X. lived with his family at his Munich villa.
The quiet atmosphere prosperous preindustrial Munich beneficial effect on X., which is entirely devoted himself to literature, Yves 1855. produces novel 'Arrabiata' ( "L'arrabiata"), which was written during a trip to Italy and writers, which takes place in Sorrento. 'Arrabiata' - this idyllic story of a young fisherman, who at first rejects the advances of a young ferryman, but then she falls in love with it. The romantic mood, a southern flavor, the description of black-eyed girl, accessible storyline typical of the other books X. Tale of 'Marion' ( "Marion") appeared in 1855, followed by 'The Girl from Treplev' ( "Das Madchen von Treppi", 1858), 'Andrea Delfin' ( "Andrea Delfin", 1859) and 'Portrait of a mother '( "Bild der Mutter", 1859).
When in 1864. each X., poet Emanuel Gaybel, was in disgrace at Ludwig II, Maximilian's successor, X. protest stopped calling at the court, but left to live in Munich. Four years after the death of his first wife X. in 1866. married Anna Schubart.
In addition to novels and short stories X. wrote many dramatic works. Historical drama 'Hans Lange' ( "Hans Lange", 1866) and the tragedy of 'Mary Magdalene' ( "Maria von Magdala", 1899) at one time enjoyed great popularity, but in literary history X. better known as a novelist. In his great novels' Children of the century '( "Kinder der Welt", 1873),' In Paradise '(' Im Paradiese ", 1875) and 'Merlin' (" Merlin ", 1892) raises ethical concerns mainly. The original poem X. well forgotten, but it is well known for his translations of Italian poets: Alessandro Manzoni, Leopardi, some others.
. In connection with the rise of naturalism in the works of such writers of the late XIX century. As Henrik Ibsen and Emile Zola, critics of the younger generation were attacked against romanticism and exoticism in the books of X
. In his later works there are some realistic elements, but in general the writer remained true to the romance, the world of feelings, rejecting naturalistic description of the grim reality.
In 1910,. X. awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature 'for the artistic, . idealism, . he demonstrated throughout his long and productive career as a lyric poet, . playwright, . novelist and author known throughout the world of short stories',
. X. was the first German writer who has received this award. 'X. is considered the founder of modern psychological novel ', - said in his speech, a member of the Swedish Academy SD. VIDC during the awards ceremony. VIDC called X. 'the most interesting poet of modern Germany'. Illness prevented X. come to Stockholm, and the prize was awarded to the German Ambassador in the Swedish Count von Pukleru.
In the same 1910. X. becomes not only a Nobel Prize, but also an honorary citizen of Munich, where four years later the writer died of pneumonia.
Author unusually prolific, X. issued twenty-four volumes of short stories, six novels, plays, and about sixty-nine books of poetry. However, his literary fame was short-lived: by the time of receipt of the Nobel Prize writer's popularity was already behind, and after the death of X. was soon forgotten. 'Although the novella X. good read - written in 1934. English critic E.K. Bennett, - one can hardly say that he brings to this genre is something truly original '. From this point of view does not agree to American critic Henry Stafford King, who in 1936. draws attention to the ability to X. create female characters, even calls him a 'feminist'. King also argues that 'book X. not only outdated, but they are trendy '. This point of view is shared by the German scholar, Christian Ullmann, who in 1976. wrote: 'X. should reread, . because his books are distinguished not only technical perfection, . but are works of major writers of XIX century., . whose description of the condition humaine ( 'life', . fr.) belongs to the great tradition of Honore de Balzac, and Gottfried Keller '.,