HEMINGWAY, Ernest( American writer, Nobel Prize for Literature, 1954)
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Biography HEMINGWAY, Ernest
July 21, 1899, Mr.. - July 2, 1961
The American writer Ernest Hemingway was born in the town of Oak Park, in a privileged suburb of Chicago. His mother, born Grace Hall, left the opera and married father of X. Clarence Edmondson Hemingway, a physician-therapist and athlete, who in 1928. suicide. The eldest son of six children, Ernest went to Oak Park schools, publishing stories and poems in school newspapers.
After graduation in 1917. H. like to join the army to participate in the First World War, but because of eye injury was not intended, and instead in 1917 ... 1918. worked as a newspaper reporter in Kansas 'Star' ( 'Star'). Six months later, he went as a volunteer in fighting Europe and becomes a driver of the American Red Cross unit at the Italian-Austrian front, where in July 1918. seriously injured in the leg, although that has managed to bring a wounded Italian soldier to safety. For military prowess X. twice awarded the Italian orders. Was treated in hospital, X. falls in love with American nurses, in ten years, this love story, as well as the military experience will form the basis of his novel 'A Farewell to Arms' ( 'A Farewell to Arms', 1929).
Back in Oak Park, a war hero, X. finds, . that life in the suburbs of Chicago is extremely boring, . and soon went to work to the editor of Chicago magazine, . where he met the writer Sherwood Anderson, . who convinces him to go to Paris, . to get rid of 'soulless', . as he put, . atmosphere of the American Midwest,
. He married in September 1921. to Hadley Richardson (from a marriage with whom he had a son), X. followed the advice of Anderson and went to Europe.
While living abroad, X. travels a lot, writes articles on a variety of topics for the 'Toronto Star' ( 'Toronto Star'), met with American writers living in a time in Paris - Gertrude Stein, Ezra Pound, F. Scott Fitzgerald and others. - And begins to write, based on the principle of 'the main thing - write one sentence of truth, and then go'. In Paris the first book X. - 'Three stories and ten poems' ( 'Three Stories and Ten Poems', 1923), written under the influence of Anderson, as well as a collection of short stories 'in our time', ( 'In Our Time', 1924), which was reissued a year later U.S.. Short-story cycle 'Today' has a simple economical style, characteristic of the mature H.; appears here for the writer and the traditional hero, who, in the words of the H., 'in a difficult moment will not fail'.
. 'By external water' ( 'The Torrents of Spring', 1926), a hastily written a parody of one of the novels of Sherwood Anderson, became interested in the famous editor Maxwell Perkins from the publishers 'Charles Skribners'
. In October 1926. H. publishes its first major novel 'The Sun Also Rises' ( 'The Sun Also Rises'), which was extremely well received by critics and created the X. enviable reputation for promising young writer. In the novel, the Americans withdrew and the British, who lived in Paris and in Spain; friends X. learned of many heroes of this book, including the author himself. According to Carlos Baker, perhaps the most authoritative of his biographers, H., writer depicted the baby boomers 'has become one of the aspects of the social history of the 20-ies of the century'. The main characters, representatives, aptly Gertrude Stein, 'lost generation', spiritually traumatized (and himself the narrator, Jake Barnes is impotent - and physically). The meaning of life, these people see only in boxing, fishing, bullfighting, drinking and love.
In 1927, Mr.. H. falls in love with Pauline Pfeiffer, in which married the same year after a divorce from his first wife, from his second marriage with X. had two sons. After the publication of another collection of short stories, 'Men without women' ( 'Men Without Women', 1927), X. returned to the United States and settled in Florida, Key West, is completing his second novel - 'A Farewell to Arms' ( 'A Farewell to Arms'), which was a huge success both with critics and at the general reader. Many literary critics believe 'A Farewell to Arms', along with more recent novel 'For Whom the Bell Tolls' ( 'For Whom the Bell Tolls' 1940), the best product of H, in which his style - clear, concise and very comprehensive - up its perfection.
. In 30-ies. However, in the creation of X
. been some decline. During this period, the writer sick of the notorious 'stellar illness', . pretend to be a 'real man' (an interest in the Spanish bullfight, . African hunting of predators, . defiant behavior), . what many perceived as posturing, . have a devastating impact on its work,
. For the main works of this period include 'Death in the Afternoon' ( 'Death in the Afternoon, . 1932), . documented verified the story of a Spanish bullfight, . 'Green Hills of Africa' ( 'The Green Hills of Africa', . 1935), . diary of the first safari writer, . which hunting, and descriptions of African landscapes interspersed with excursions into literature and aesthetics, . 'Have and Have Not' ( 'To Have and Have Not', . 1937), . story, . which takes place in Florida, . where the protagonist is forced by the burdens of the Great Depression to become a smuggler,
. In 30-ies. recognition of the critics were only two masterfully written story, which takes place in Africa: 'The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber' ( 'The Short and Happy Life of Francis Macomber') and 'The Snows of Kilimanjaro' ( 'The Snows of Kilimanjaro').
. During the Spanish Civil War X
. to fully develop as an artist and citizen. In 1937, . raise money for Republicans, . writer sent to Spain as a war correspondent for the North American Newspaper Association and the scriptwriter of the documentary film 'Land of Spain', . who shot Dutch director Joris Ivens,
. Having been in Spain for the second time, X. wrote the play 'Fifth Column' (The Fifth Colunn), which shows the siege of Madrid in autumn 1937, at the same time he begins an affair with Martha Gellhorn, a war correspondent in Madrid. Book X. 'For Whom the Bell Tolls' is devoted to the events of the Spanish Civil War and describes recent developments in the life of American volunteers who fought on the Republican side. This novel, the title of which made the words of English poet John Donne ('... Ask not for whom the bell tolls, it tolls for thee '), is a call to the brotherhood of man. 'For Whom the Bell Tolls' was a huge success. According to Carlos Baker, 'this book is still unsurpassed masterpiece among all the works (both literary and non-fiction) on the Spanish tragedy of those years'.
After her divorce from Pauline Pfeiffer X. in 1940. marries Martha Gellhorn, buys house near Havana and, together with his wife made a trip to China, where at this time is Sino-Japanese War. In 1944, Mr.. H. divorces his third wife, is sent to London as a war correspondent, is involved in the flights for Royal Air Force, describing the Allied landings in Normandy, and on 25 August 1944. is with American troops in Paris. The writer so actively involved in the fighting allies, that it almost gets court-martialed for violating the rules of the Geneva Convention relative to the conduct of war correspondents, which, however, did not prevent him to get a Bronze Star for bravery. Returned 14 March 1946, Mr.. in Havana, X. marries Mary Welch, a correspondent for the magazine 'Times', with whom he met in London in 1944. and with whom he lived until his death.
After several years of hard work X. completes the novel 'Across the river in the shade of the trees' ( 'Across the River and Into the Trees', 1950), which was set during the Second World War in Italy. Criticism unanimously recognized this unfortunate affair: pretentious, sentimental, self-satisfied. Lillian Ross placed on this subject in the 'New Yorker' caustic lampoon, and writer-humorist E.B. White responded wicked parody of 'behind bars, in the shade of the trees'.
In 1952, Mr.. H. prints in the magazine 'Life' novel 'The Old Man and the Sea' ( 'The Old Man and the Sea'), a lyrical story about an old fisherman, who caught and then missed the biggest fish in his life. The story enjoyed great success both with critics and at the general reader, has caused global repercussions, reputation X. restored, and in 1953. writer receives for the Pulitzer Prize-winning novel.
In 1954, Mr.. H. was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature 'for the narrative skill, demonstrated once again in the' Old Man and the Sea ', as well as the influence on modern fiction'. In his speech, when giving the award Anders Esterling, a member of the Swedish Academy, called X. 'one of the most significant writers of our time'. Praising the latest novel H., Esterling said that 'in this story, which was a simple fisherman, faced with a human destiny, praised the fighting spirit in the complete absence of material gain ... a hymn to a moral victory, which comes out on people who lost '.
As health X. unable to attend the award ceremony. In his Nobel lecture, which was read by John Cabot, the U.S. ambassador to Sweden, said that 'creativity - is at best a lonely ... The writer is growing in public opinion and for that sacrifice their loneliness. After all, the writer creates one, and if he is a good writer, he has every day to deal with eternity - or lack thereof '.
In 1960, Mr.. H. lying at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester (Minnesota) with a diagnosis of depression and serious mental. After leaving the hospital and making sure that he is unable to write any more, X. returned to his home in Ketch (Idaho), and June 2, 1961, putting a gun to his temple, commits suicide. In the obituary of the American critic Edmund Wilson said that 'this event, just as if it suddenly collapsed one of the cornerstones of our generation'.
. Some works of H., for example 'Islands in the Ocean' ( 'Islands in the Stream', 1970), were published posthumously
. But, . except 'Festival, . which is always with you '(' A Moveable Feast ', . 1964), . memories of life in Paris in the 20-ies., . Most of the works published posthumously added nothing to the reputation of the writer, . which after his death, was steadily declining,
. Having in mind first of all 'The Old Man and the Sea', the critic Ken Moritz stated that 'we need intellectual courage, and not romantic myths about lone heroes'. Opponents H., wrote the critic Robert P. Wicks in his foreword to the book 'collection of critical essays about the works of Hemingway' (1962), believe that 'X. too limited ... his characters are silent, unfeeling ... in his books are described only boxing, bull-fight, fights, trout fishing and other men's pleasures; style X. and style will not name - so it is simple '
Despite such criticism, X. remains one of the major American writers, whose books have been translated into many languages. Same Wicks notes that despite all the shortcomings, and partly because they work X. - 'Is the cry of the soul, which, although he may not have enough variety of Tolstoy and melvillskoy power, is touching and mixed reaction to our time'.
Reviewing in 1985. Two new biographies of H., an American short story writer Raymond Carver said: 'How fresh and now read the best works of Hemingway!.. If there is a natural affinity between his fingers, turning the pages, eyes, traveling to rows, and the brain, pick up these words in the thoughts and images, then, Hemingway did his job, then it gets old. "