Spitteler (Spitteler), Carl( Swiss poet, novelist and essayist, Nobel Prize for Literature, 1919)
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Biography Spitteler (Spitteler), Carl
April 24, 1845, Mr.. - December 28, 1924
Carl Friedrich Georg Spitteler, Swiss poet, novelist and essayist, was born in Liestal, near Basel. When his father, a government official, was in 1849. appointed treasurer of the Swiss Confederation, the family moved to Berne, and Karl stayed to live with his aunt in Basel and posgupil in the local school. Later he returned to Liestal, how to make daily trips to the Basel school, which in some subjects received training at the university level.
From an early age showed musical ability and drawing, W. originally intended to become an artist, . but the school came under the influence of William Vakernagelya philologist and historian Jacob Burckhardt, . who gave birth to his interest in epic poetry, . especially to the writings of Ludovico Ariosto, . Italian poet of the Renaissance,
. Soon W. begins to write their own poems.
In 1863, Mr.. yielding father's wish, W. entered the University of Zurich, at the Faculty of Law From 1865 to 1870. He studied theology at Zurich, Heidelberg and Basel, intending to be a priest, but then rejects the offer to become a pastor in Arosa in the canton of Grisons, to be able to do literature. In 1871, Mr.. SH. becoming a tutor in the family of a Russian general and eight years of living in St. Petersburg, occasionally leaving to Finland. During the time he finishes his first major epic poem "Prometheus and Epimetheus' (" Prometheus und Epimetheus ", . 1881), . he conceived while still a student at Heidelberg Written ritmizovannoy prose, . poem is a modern allegory with metaphorical parallels to the conflicts and contradictions of the modern era.,
. Back in 1879
. Switzerland, W. publish this poem at his own expense under the pseudonym Carl Felix Tandem However, output 'Prometheus' remains unnoticed, and W. comes to the conclusion that he could not support themselves literary work in 1881. he becomes a teacher in Noyveville (Canton of Bern), where two years later married his pupil, Marie der Hoff. At the same time, W. a journalist in newspapers Basel (1885 ... 1886) and Zurich (1890 1892) and continues to write, . from his pen go: 'the supernatural' ( "Extramundana", . 1883) poem, . white verse written, . 'Butterfly' ( "Schmetterhnge", . 1889) a collection of lyrical poems, . prose 'Little Fred Calder clan' ( "Fnedli der Kolderi", . 1891) and 'Gustav' ( "Gustav", . 1892), . and a collection of satirical poems 'literary parable' ( "Litteransche Gleichnisse", . 1892),
. In 1892, Mr.
. wife W. receives from parents inherited, . and he entirely devoted himself to literature in Lucerne, . where the writer moved with his family, . were written: 'Ballad' ( "Balladen", . 1896), . 'Gorge Gothard' ( "Der Gotthard", . 1897), . story 'Lieutenant Conrad' ( "Conrad der Leutnant", . 1898) and a collection of critical essays 'Funny Truth' ( "Lachende Wahrheiten", . 1898).,
. Idealist and classicist, W
. could then rely on the widespread popularity. Nevertheless, he was seen and appreciated by such writers and critics as Josef Viktor Widmann, literary editor of 'Berner Bund' ( "Berner Bund"), as well as the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, who in 1887, Mr.. recommended him to the post of editor of the Munich magazine Kunstvart '(' Art Review '). Ironically, ten years later, when W. again, already under his own name, published 'Prometheus and Epimetheus', he was accused that he had borrowed the theme of his poem in Nietzsche, from "Thus Spake Zarathustra'. Since the poem was published earlier books Nietzsche, W. was forced to defend themselves against charges of plagiarism, which is reflected in the pamphlet 'My relationship with Nietzsche' ( "Meine Beziehungen zu Nietzsche", 1908).
Wide fame came to W. after the publication of the epic poem "The Olympic Spring '(" Olympischer Fruhlmg "), which became the top of his poetry, which was printed in parts from 1900 to 1905, and completely out in 1910. Complex mixture of mythology, humor, fantasy, religion and allegory, written in iambic hexameter, this poem was composed of five books and was stretched to 600 pages. "The Olympic Spring" was recognized as a masterpiece of German-language literature after 1904, Mr.. famous conductor Felix Weingartner published a laudatory article about it.
W continues to live in seclusion, avoiding expressions of political and religious issues. Nevertheless, in 1914. He is in favor of neutrality of Switzerland, emphatically rejecting the idea that the German-speaking Switzerland should be seen as 'racial ally' of Germany. As a result, the writer has lost the support of those who contributed to the growth of its popularity, but has received awards of the French, gave him in 1916. Medal of the Society of French-speaking writers.
In 1920, Mr.. aged 75 W. received the Nobel Prize for Literature 1919. 'for the incomparable epic "The Olympic Spring"'. Member of the Swedish Academy called Harald JцTrn mythology W. 'unique form of expression, which in the fight against the free will of necessity appear imposed on the level of imagination of the ideal human suffering, hope and disappointment'. The award was presented to the Ambassador of Switzerland to Sweden, since the W. was ill and at the awards ceremony could not attend. He died four years later, in December 1924, in Lucerne.
Evidence of a high artistic reputation of the writer's obituary was written by Romain Rolland, where W. called 'our Homer, the greatest German-language poet since Goethe, the sole master of the epic genre after the death of Milton, a figure standing in the contemporary art aloof' Recently, however, the work W. again begin to be forgotten.