Rudolf Eucken( German philosopher, Nobel Prize for Literature, 1908)
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Biography Rudolf Eucken
January 5, 1846, Mr.. - September 15, 1926
German philosopher Rudolf Eucken was born in a small town near the Dutch border, Aurich. His father, ammonium Bakker Aiken, worked at the post office, although his temperament was a mathematician, and his mother, nцLe Ida Maria Gitterman, was well-educated religious woman, the daughter of a priest. Early Childhood E. was overshadowed by his own serious illness and death of his father and younger brother. To support the family financially, his mother rented out rooms to tenants, she had pinned great hopes on his son and, despite difficulties, has ensured that he received a good education.
While a student at the school in Aurich, E. first interested in mathematics and music, but under the influence of one of his teachers, the theologian William Reuter, began to study religion and philosophy. E. was still very young when I entered the University of Gottingen for the study of classical philosophy and ancient history. The University E. attended lectures by the philosopher Hermann Lotze, whose rationalist views he did not share. Later, the University of Berlin, E. met a follower of Aristotle the philosopher Adolf Trendelenburg. This great teacher fired for E. impressed in its ability to establish the relationship between philosophy, history and religion. Trendelenburg's idealism has had a profound influence on creativity E.
After assignment to the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in GцTttingen E. five years teaching in higher education, in 1870. publishes two brochures on Aristotle, and a year later received the chair of philosophy at the University of Basel His 'Method of Aristotelian studies' ( "Die Methode der anstotelischen Forschung") was published in 1872
Two years later, E. became a professor of philosophy at Jena University, where he teaches until 1920,. His book "Fundamental concepts of modern philosophical thought '(" Die Grundbegriffe der Gegenwart ", 1878), aroused great interest in the scientific community, devoted to the historical roots of various philosophical concepts. In 1908, Mr.. E. reissued the book under the new name 'The main trends of modern thought' ( "Geistige Stromungen der Gegenwart") and tied the historical development of philosophy with their own philosophical ideas As a result, E. interested in the lights of philosophical thought throughout the world.
As published in 1890. and extremely popular in its time 'problem of human life the eyes of the great thinkers' ( "Die Lebensanschauungen der grossen Denker"). E. still interested in the problems of modern life in the understanding of the great philosophers of the past, however, since 1890. E. ceases to be interested in the history of philosophy and began to present their own idealistic, . religious and ethical thought in the writings, . as 'The struggle for the spiritual life' ( "Der K-ampf um einen geistigen Lebensinhalt", . 1896), . 'True religion' ( "Der Wahrheitsgehalt der Religion", . 1901) and 'Key features of the new understanding of the world' ( "Grundlinien einer neuen Lebensanschauung", . 1907),
. Arguing that the eternal spiritual values lie outside of everyday life, the philosopher emphasizes the importance of individual ethical aspirations and encourages mankind to strive for spirituality.
In 1908, Mr.. E. was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature 'for the serious pursuit of truth, all-penetrating power of thought, open-mindedness, liveliness and persuasiveness with which he defended and developed an idealist philosophy'. Awarding of the literary prize of the philosopher was a surprise for some. In his speech, Harald seal, a member of the Swedish Academy said in this connection that Alfred Nobel, who established a literary prize in order to celebrate the 'outstanding works of an idealist tendency', would have approved of this choice. 'More than thirty years, said pany, - Professor E. wrote serious studies in different areas of philosophy '
E. read his Nobel lecture 'naturalism or idealism' one year after the award Naturalism, he said, is 'faith in the relationship between man and nature'. E. argued that idealism, which he adheres, also carries this belief, however, stands above naturalism, because 'rises above the culture of life, aware of itself in eternity.
In 1911, Mr.. E. read lectures in England, and next year we spent six months at Harvard University. In the United States philosopher lectured at Smith College in Lowell Institute in Boston and at Columbia University, where Myurrey Nicholas Butler, then president of the university, gave a banquet in honor of E. and Henri Bergson. In this trip E. also became acquainted with Andrew Carnegie and Theodore Roosevelt.
E. going to go to Japan and China, but the sudden start of World War disrupted his plans. During the war, the philosopher condemned Britain, accusing it of 'savage egoism', and argued that Germany was not responsible.
In 1882, Mr.. E. married Irene Passow, and they had a daughter and two sons. E. died in Jena in 1926
E. often criticized because it does not take into account the achievements of modern science, and yet the philosopher had many followers, some of them regarded him as a major thinker and moralist of his age. In the book 'Rudolf Eucken. His life and influence '(1913) Meyrik Booth noted that E. 'combined intellectual depth, sharpness and sense of empathy'. J. although these days the name of E. occurs, usually only in the footnotes, modern philosophers from time to time it is invoked. In 1970, for example, Warren Shtaynkraus called E. champion of 'true spirituality, not superficial morality, but of life, full of nobility and dignity'.