Thomas Stearns Eliot (Eliot Thomas Stearns)( American poet, Nobel Prize for Literature, 1948)
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Biography Thomas Stearns Eliot (Eliot Thomas Stearns)
September 26, 1888, Mr.. - January 4, 1965
American poet Thomas Stearns Eliot was born in St. Louis (Missouri). He was the youngest of seven children in the family. Among his ancestors was the Reverend William Greenleaf Eliot, founder of the Washington University in St. Louis, and the maternal side Isaac Stearns, one of the first settlers of Massachusetts. Father E., Henry Ware Eliot, was a wealthy industrialist, and his mother, nцLe Charlotte Stearns, a woman educated and literary gifted, wrote a biography of William Greenleaf Eliot, as well as a drama in verse, 'Savonarola'.
. After a private school Smith akedemi in St. Louis, E
. year he studied in the private Massachusetts college and in 1906. enrolled at Harvard University. Talented, outstanding student, E. graduated from a university course in three years and received a master's degree in the fourth year.
At this time, E. wrote poems in the 'Harvard advoket' ( 'Harvard Advocate') and is the editor of this magazine from 1909 to 1910. Then he went to Paris, where he attended lectures at the Sorbonne and studied French literature, especially the Symbolist poets. Even at Harvard, he became interested in symbolism, read symbolist poet Jules Laforgue and the book Arthur Simons 'Movement of symbolism in literature', which had a great influence on the development of the poet.
Back in 1911. at Harvard, E. wrote his thesis on the English idealist philosopher F.G. Bradley, studying Sanskrit and Buddhism. By Sheldonian scholarship, he went first to Germany and then to England, where he studied philosophy at Oxford's Merton College, where he taught Bradley. After much hesitation and doubt E. decides to devote himself to literature and not to return to Harvard for a thesis defense. He remains in London and wrote poems. With the help of Ezra Pound and Wyndham Lewis, some of them were printed in 1915. To earn a living, he worked for about a year teaching, then served as a clerk in a bank 'Lloyd', in 1925. he begins to work in publishing 'Feyber End Guayer' (later 'Feyber End Feyber'), first literary editor, and then one of the directors of the company.
In 1915, Mr.. E. married Vivian Heywood. Although the marriage was unhappy, Eliot lived together for 19 years. After divorce, Vivian was placed in a psychiatric hospital, where she died in 1947
From 1917 to 1919. E. worked as deputy editor of 'egoist' ( 'Egoist'). His earliest poems appeared in various periodicals, including the 'Catholic anthology' ( 'Catholic Anthology') Ezra Pound in 1915. Two new collections of poetry E. 'Prufrok and other observations' ( 'Prufrock and Other Observations') and 'Poems' ( 'Poems') were published by Virginia and Leonard Woolf in 'Hogarth Press' ( 'Hogarth Press'), respectively in 1917 and 1919. Written under the influence of Laforgue, the two collections of poems bear the stamp of deep disappointment reality. In 'love songs J. Alfred Prufroka '(' The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock '), the first great poem, E., captured the hero -' accommodating, deferential courtier, well-meaning, ornate ... ' (lane. A. Sergeyev) - and painfully indecisive, inarticulate, especially with women. 'Prufrok' was a milestone in the poetry of the XX century., Many critics wrote about the significance of this poem, and the American poet John Berryman thought that with 'Prufroka' originates modern poetry.
. Simultaneously with the growing popularity E. poet quickly and firmly established the reputation E
. - Literary criticism. Since 1919, he was standing by 'The Times litereri sapplment' ( 'Times Literary Supplement'), the literary supplement to the 'Times'. There was a series of articles published by E. of Elizabethan drama and the Jacobin, who, along with other critical reviews and articles included in the collection of aesthetic works E. 'Sacred forest' ( 'The Sacred Wood', 1920). The articles on Shakespeare, Dante, Draydene, Marlowe, John Donne, George Herbert, Andrew Marvell E. attempted to 'return to the poet's life, which is great, the enduring task of criticism'. Opinion E. 'In paying tribute to John Draydenu' ( 'Homage to John Dryden', . 1924) and 'Selected Essays' ( 'Selected Essays', . 1932) were the program for the emergence of the influential critical flow, . known as the Cambridge School, . and later in the United States as the new criticism,
. In addition, E. introduced into the literary everyday life the two most important for the development of critical thinking concepts: objective correlative - the harmonization of emotional start with an objective picture of the particular psychological situation, . correspondence between the feeling and 'set of objects, . situation, . chain of events, . are the formula, . calling it a feeling ', and dissociation of sensibility (the collapse of the susceptibility), . under which E,
. meant the loss of integrity of 'thinking' in poetry since the XVII century. Many of the critical views E. reflected in the journal 'Krayterion' ( 'Criterion'), a highly influential critical edition, published 4 times a year from 1922 to 1939
In 1922, Mr.. E. published the poem 'The Waste Land' ( 'The Waste Land'), which his friend and mentor Ezra Pound called 'the longest poem ever written in English'.
. His hyperbole (the poem consists of only 434 lines) Pound alludes to a poetic concentration and the abundance of allusions in the poem
. (Pound, . by the way, . participated in editing the final version of the poem, . he has reduced by one third.) 'Waste Land', . best, . according to many influential critics, . product of E., . shaped the subsequent development of poetry, . consists of five parts, . are combined cross-cutting themes of infertility and the erosion of values,
. 'Waste Land', which reflected doubts and disappointments of the postwar generation, expressed the intellectual mood of an era. In 1927, Mr.. E. baptized in the rite of the Church of England and in the same year was granted British citizenship. In the preface to a collection of essays "In Defense of Lancelot Andrews' ( 'For Lancelot Andrewes') he calls himself' anglokatolikom in religion, classicist in literature and the royalist in politics'. While still a student at American, E. showed a lively interest in the culture of the country of their ancestors, fellow students, even jokingly called him 'an Englishman in all but accent and citizenship'. And if the adoption of British citizenship to some extent consistent with his youthful aspirations, . his transition to the Church of England was a departure from family tradition unitarianstva, . while meeting the needs of E., . Puritan descent, . a strict and clear moral orientation,
. In the poem 'Ash Wednesday' ( 'Ash Wednesday', 1930) become apparent mental torment that accompanied his appeal to the Anglican faith. It was during this period of intellectual and spiritual confusion E. translates poem Saint-John Perse 'Anabasis' ( 'Anabasis', 1930), a kind of spiritual history of mankind, and introduces the English-speaking readers with the works near E. the spirit of the French poet.
In 30-ies. E. wrote poetic drama. 'Stone' ( 'The Rock', 1934) and 'Murder in the Cathedral' ( 'Murder in the Cathedral', 1935) were intended to religious performances. 'Murder in the Cathedral' is a philosophical morality of the pain of St.. Thomas Becket, and is considered the best piece E. She was a great success in the theaters of Europe and the United States. His plays about contemporary life - 'Family Reunion' ( 'The Family Retinion', . 1939), . 'Evening Cocktail' ( 'The Cocktail Party', . 1950), . 'Private Secretary' ( 'The Confidential Clerk', . 1954) and 'elder statesman' ( 'The Elder Statesman', . 1959) - are considered less successful,
. The author largely failed attempt to fill the modern content of the theme of ancient tragedy. 'Evening Cocktail', though at one time enjoyed success at the theater on both sides of the Atlantic.
Poem of 40-ies. 'Four Quartets' ( 'Four Quartets', . 1943), . 'Burnt Norton' ( 'Burnt Norton', . 1941), . 'East Coker' ( 'East Coker', . 1940), . 'Dry Selveydzhes' ( 'The Dry Salvages', . 1941) and 'Little Gidding' ( 'Little Gidding', . 1942) are considered by many critics the most mature poetic works of E,
. Each poem - a meditation inspired by the contemplation of different landscapes, in which the poet weaves his own judgments about history, time, nature of language, as well as personal recollections.
In 1948, Mr.. E. awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature "for an outstanding innovative contribution to modern poetry '. Member of the Swedish Academy Anders Esterling in his speech stressed that verse E. 'is a special feature - the ability to sink into the consciousness of our generation with the exigencies of the diamond'. 'I consider awarding the Nobel Prize poet confirmation universal values poetry - say E. in reply. - For this one should from time to time to reward poets, Nobel Prize, I do not regard as a recognition of their own merit, but as a symbol of the importance of poetry '.
In 1957. E. married EsmцL Valerie Fletcher. The poet died in 1965 at the age of 76 years, and was buried in East Coker, the village in Somerset, where in the middle of the XVII century. his ancestor Andrew Eliot went to America.
E. has been awarded many prizes. Among them, the British Order of Merit (1948), French Legion of Honor (1954), the Goethe Prize Hanseatic League (1954),. E. had 16 honorary degrees from British, American and European universities and was an honorary member of the Boards of Magdalen College, and the tone of the Mer College (Oxford).
Throughout his life E. often went home to visit relatives, gave lectures, worked in publishing. The poet received a lot of American awards and was a member of the Scientific Council of the Institute for Basic Research in Princeton in 1948. and board member of the American Library of Congress from 1947 to 1954
Critical and textual literature on creativity, E., continues to grow after the death of the poet. According to the American critic Irwin Ehrenpreis, 'Poetry E. penetrates into the depths of morality and psychology. E. understood the changing, paradoxical nature of our most hidden emotions and judgments, and tried to express this paradox in his own style '. Style E., believes Ehrenpreis, differs 'violation of the syntax and meaning, thus attracting the attention of the reader, forcing him to take a fresh look at the challenges and value of literary work'.
'Twofold E. was - wrote the English critic M. Bredbruk - to find the interpretation of his age, holding, as taught by the greatest of poets, Mirror face of nature, and yet follow the example of true perfection. "