Etchegaray (Echegaray), Xoce( Spanish dramatist Nobel Prize for Literature, 1904)
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Biography Etchegaray (Echegaray), Xoce
April 19, 1832, Mr.. - September 14, 1916
Spanish playwright Xoce Maria Waldo Etchegaray-and-Eyzaguirre was born in Madrid in a family of Basque origin. When he was 3 years, parents moved to Murcia, the ancient provincial town in the territory of the former Moorish kingdom on the Mediterranean coast.
Father Z. was professor of Greek language in Murcia Institute, where at an early age and joined his precocious son of E. concentrated all his attention on the study of Greek and Latin languages, as well as on the natural history. Receiving the 14 lay a bachelor's degree in Philosophy, he returned to Madrid, where he successfully studied mathematics at the Escuela de Caminos (Technical School), which ends early in 1853, Mr.. After several years of work as an engineer future writer gets a teaching position in Mathematics, Escuela de Caminos, where E. taught both theoretical and applied mathematics, and published mathematical papers and monographs, has established himself as one of the most prominent Spanish mathematicians of his time.
During these years, E. is also exploring the political economy, philosophy, and geology, is a passionate theatergoer, while he has not thought about that to become a writer, though read a lot. Approximately 1864. brother E. Miguel, who at that time was still a teenager, wrote a one-act play in verse, 'heads or tails' ( "Cara on Cruz"), which was set on the amateur stage. Apparently, it made an impression on ME, which, according to one of his translators, James Graham, also wrote his first play, which, to our knowledge, has not been set.
Before devote himself entirely to literature, E. plunged into political activities after the dethronement of Queen Isabella II as a result of the revolution of 1868, Mr.. He became Minister of Public Works, and a year later, as one of the most active supporters fritrederstva - Minister of Trade in 1869. E. elected to the Cortes, the Spanish Parliament, has held various official posts, as Minister of Finance, shall establish the Bank of Spain.
After the restoration of the Bourbon dynasty in 1874,. E. temporarily forced to emigrate to Paris, where, freed from political and administrative concerns, wholly given to the power of literary and theatrical interests. Back at the end of that year in Madrid, . He wrote his first play 'Check book' ( "El ibro talonano") under the pseudonym of Jorge Ayaseka-and-Eyzaguirre, . then, . sacrificed for the sake of mathematics and politics Theater, . Over the next three decades devoted exclusively to literary work,
. Unusually prolific author, E. created by two or three plays a year, at least - one. Thus, over the life of a whole generation of Spanish theater was filled with numerous works of E. The popularity of the playwright explained by several factors. First, E. much borrowed from the classic Spanish Theater of Pedro CalderцЁn de la Barca, stylized pieces of which still enjoy great popularity in Spain, secondly, E. into account the public interest in high melodrama, and thirdly, E. presented the traditional romantic themes of honor, loyalty and love in the modern interpretation.
Of the sixty pieces E. almost half were written in verse, this is, . example, . romantic drama 'The wife of the avenger' ( "La esposa del vengador", . 1874), . first known play playwright, . for which a year later was followed by work, . which took an even more resounding success, . - Play 'in the handle of the sword' ( "En el puiio de la espada", . 1875) In 1877, the play is written r 'Insanity or holiness' ( "On lucura on santidad"), . where the story of a Don Lorenzo, . uncompromising, . honesty and directness that leads to, . announced that its insane,
. After translation of this play in 1895. English language E. receives international recognition. George Bernard Shaw said that the E. belongs to the 'school of Friedrich von Schiller, Victor Hugo and Verdi with their usual coloring, a true tragedy, the struggle of beauty and heroism of blind fate or with an indomitable idealism, above all else feared the jealousy and vindictiveness'
. These features creative E
. brought him popularity among Spanish audiences. Later, starting with the problem plays 'Son of Don Juan' ( "El hi jo de Don Juan", 1892), drama E. becomes more realistic. Written under the influence of 'Ghosts' Ibsen, this drama on the theme of the impact of a dissolute life of his father's son. Unlike most critics, the play is not accepted, Shaw in 1895. noted that E. 'in their own way develops the theme of "Ghosts"' Then Shaw wrote: 'The fact, . that neither Mrs. Alving, . nor Mandersa in the Spanish play no, . a dissolute father, . which does not appear in Ibsen, . from E., . opposite, . almost hero, . shows, . the plot 'Ghosts' was a new national treatment, . but retained the old morality '.,
. The theme of 'Great galiot' ( "El gran Galeoto", 1881), probably the most famous works of E., is the destructive power of rumors that victimize innocent people According to art critic Federico de Onis, 'these pieces ..
. with skill and effectiveness of reproducing the traditional themes and conflicts that constitute the essence of drama '.
When in 1894. E. was elected to the Royal Spanish Academy, . he was at his zenith, . but shortly thereafter a new generation of Spanish writers, . known as 'Generation 1898', . led the fight against, . what they called sentimental and old literary style, . epigone Ibsen and the French naturalists in the work of Spanish playwright,
. In addition, E. accused that he has lost touch with the pressing social demands of the Spanish people in 1904,. E. with Frederic Mistral received the Nobel Prize 'for the many achievements in the revival of the traditions of the Spanish drama'. In his welcome speech, SD. VIDC, a member of the Swedish Academy, said, 'like the old masters of the Spanish drama, E. combines his creative imagination and the unity of refined artistic taste '. Winner at the award ceremony was not present.
Despite the fact that the award of E. Nobel Prize has caused dissatisfaction among the younger generation of Spanish writers, critics of a later time to evaluate the historical significance of creativity E. - A bridge between classical and modern stages of development of Spanish drama. In contrast, Donald Shaw, who called the E. 'the most typical representative of the decline in the Spanish theater in the late XIX century', other critics believe that E. in some of his plays had an impact on the development of modern drama. Comparing the product of E. the works of Luigi Pirandello, the American scholar Wilma Newberry noted that 'Pirandello took a number of fundamental ideas of E., which enabled him to make a revolution in modern theater'. Both writers, according to Newberry, 'questioned the reality that surrounds us, using the method of' theater in theater ', the conflict of the drama associated with her staging, tried to analyze the creative process. They subjected romanticism satirical ridicule, thereby pre-empting accusations of criticism in the commitment to this direction. "
E., which in addition to the Nobel Prize was awarded in 1912. Order of the Golden Fleece, died in Madrid at the age of 84