Asser (Asser), Tobias( Dutch statesman and jurist, Nobel Peace Prize, 1911)
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Biography Asser (Asser), Tobias
April 28, 1838, Mr.. - July 29, 1913
Tobias Michael Carel Asser, Dutch statesman and jurist, was born in Amsterdam, he was one of three children and only son of Charles Daniel Asser and Rosetta-Henri Godefroid-Asser. Parents And. originated from the ancient Jewish families. Father and paternal grandfather were lawyers, and his uncle served as Minister of Justice. As a student, a. filed much hope, so, he won the competition in 1857, presenting work on the value as an economic concept. Initially, choosing a business career, and. then decided to follow family tradition and enrolled in the Amsterdam 'Athenaeum' (later transformed into the University). Becoming a doctor of law in 1860, he received an invitation to the International Commission of freedom of navigation on the Rhine, through which the young lawyer became the first experience in international law.
After a brief private practice A. in 1862. He was appointed professor of international and commercial law in the 'Atheneum'. Numerous works of 24-year-old professor soon made him famous in legal circles. Together with Gustave Rolin-Zhakminsom (Belgium) and John Westlake (England) A. in 1869. founded the 'Journal of International Law and comparative law' ( 'Revue de Droit International et de Legislation Comparee'). As one of the first publications of this kind, the magazine quickly gained popularity thanks to the high level of articles, many of which were written by A.
After 4 years A. and Rolin-Zhakmins along with other prominent lawyers, founded the Institute of International Law in Ghent (Belgium). For several years the Institute has developed the international civil rights laws, extradition, and some other. Were laid the foundations of international justice, the issues of warfare, in particular the issue of the neutral zones during the war.
Continuing teaching and research since 1875. A. at the same time was an advisor to the Minister of Foreign Affairs. It was his first state post. Speaks German, French and English, and. great benefit to the negotiations, he participated in the preparation of almost all international treaties signed by the Dutch government over the next 38 years. One of the most successful missions A. took place during the International Conference 1888. in Constantinople (now Istanbul), which discussed the neutrality of the Suez Canal. During the talks, A. persuaded the delegates to include in the commission of the Suez Canal representatives of Spain and the Netherlands, providing, thus, participate in the administration of small European states. In October, the Convention on the Suez Canal was signed, it stated that the channel is the channel 'must be free to constantly open and in war and in peacetime' for vessels of all nations.
A. left the University of Amsterdam in 1893, when he was invited to the State Council, the central administrative authority of the Netherlands. A considerable merit. consisted in organizing four conferences on international law in The Hague (1893, 1894, 1900, 1904), he also served as its chairman. The first two conferences, delegates developed a unified international civil procedure process. The other two managed to adopt an international code of family law, which covered the issues of marriage, divorce, guardianship of minors.
As head of the delegation of the Netherlands at the Hague Conference of 1899 and 1907. A. put forward the principle of compulsory arbitration as an alternative to armed conflict. During the first conference of A. supported the plan for organizing the International Court of Arbitration at The Hague, of which he became in 1900. Two years later, the court has a hearing the first case - a dispute the U.S. and Mexico because of the religious trust. Foundation was organized by Mexican Catholics in the XVIII century. to support the Catholic Church in California, is part of the Spanish Empire. After the loss of California during the Mexican-American War, Mexico refused to pay the local Catholic clergy. A. Hague and other arbitrators ruled in favor of California Churches. In another important process of settling the dispute the United States and Russia over fishing rights in the Bering Strait. In 1904. A. was appointed Minister of State - at the time it was the highest rise for a man of his origin.
In 1911, Mr.. A work. in the field of international arbitration was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize - that honor he shared with Alfred Freedom. "Importantly, that A. is a practical statesman, - said the representative of the Norwegian Nobel Committee Jorgen Levlann. - As a pioneer in international legal relations, he won a reputation as one of the largest specialists of modern jurisprudence '. A. No, nor Fried did not attend the ceremony and the Nobel lectures did not come.
A. married to his cousin, Johanna Ernestine Asser (1864), had three sons and a daughter. A. died in The Hague on 29 July 1913, Mr.. Soon after his election as honorary president of the Institute of International Law.
Merits A. appreciated and in the scientific world: he was awarded honorary degrees at the universities of Cambridge, Edinburgh, Berlin and Bologna. He was the author of many exemplary works on international law and the Dutch commercial law. Legal Library, transmitted to them in the Peace Palace in The Hague, is still called 'Asserovskogo assembly'.