Artsimovich Viktor Antonovich( Governor of Tobolsk)
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Biography Artsimovich Viktor Antonovich
(1820 - 1893)
Victor A. Artsimovich was born in 1820, Mr.. in the Bialystok area (in those years it is the outskirts of Russia Empire - the western part of Lithuania). His parents, Polish-Catholics, belonged to the landed gentry impoverished layer. However, the father of Victor Antonovich made the perfect bureaucratic career, receiving, among other awards, 2000 acres of land in the local ownership, and thus became a landowner more than the average hand.
He graduated from the Imperial College of Law. This is a privileged institution trained civil servants, high-flying - a successful advance them, as a rule, was achieved. To this end, the Senate sent there so-called Senate audit, in which a young Artsimovich regularly took part, learning the wrong side of the bureaucratic. Already in these years, Victor A. made a reputation as a very principled, conscientious auditor and, most importantly, strict "lawyer", inspiring terror in the embezzlers and bribe-takers. In the Senate Artsimovich promoted to Chief Secretary (something like a business manager).
In 1854, Mr.. Victor Antonovich was appointed governor of Tobolsk. Over the five years of service in Tobolsk, not only proved to be very active head of the province, . but also confirmed his reputation as "lawyer" (ordering the government offices, . more or less successfully combating bribery, . improving the situation of the exiles, . splitters and displaced persons).,
. In 1858, Mr.
. Artsimovich from Tobolsk was transferred to the Kaluga province. One of the main reasons for this move was the interest of the Government who prepared agrarian reform, in that in this difficult period of our first "adjustment" in the provincial posts were people like Victor Antonovich. Dream it, however, not been realized in life because of the absence in Russia Artsimovich in the mass circulation - it has remained a unique governor.
. After retiring from the Kaluga (1863) with the scandal and glory and will further enhance the reputation of a "white crow", . Victor Antonovich received a new assignment - he became a member of the management of the Kingdom of Poland, . which just, . 1861, . rolled uprising,
. The Council of Management task was to complete the pacification of the Kingdom of the Polish socio-economic reforms. Here Artsimovich served a short. In 1865, Mr.. he asked for the translation, do not get along with stricter reformers such as H. Milutin, who, according to Victor Antonovich, operated by brutal violence, destroying and not reconstructing.
Since 1865. Artsimovich became one of the leading positions in their own Senate (pervoprisutstvuyuschy, ie. Chairman of Cassation Department). Here he worked for almost thirty years, acting always in his usual "liberal-ordered" the spirit. He is rightly considered one of the major figures of the new judicial system created by the famous reform of 1864
. Victor A. Artsimovich died in 1893, mourned by all Russia's liberals - a rare phenomenon in the circle, where the death of a senior official (even violent) caused, as a rule, violent
. Moral and political make
. Victor A. Artsimovich figure, undoubtedly, highly positive, even with some of the excesses in this regard
. About his childhood almost nothing is known, but, obviously, really, he formed the Law School. The school was founded in 1835 by Mr.. for a new type of education officials - who know the laws, seeking to protect their. The government hoped to oppose the "new shoots" of the old bureaucrats, like Gogol, embezzlers and bribe-takers, which erodes management system under Nicholas I.
. The global change of this experiment, of course, did not lead, but some results gave us the same interest in the case of Victor A. justified itself completely
. It really is quite consistent with a rare type of official for Russia, for which the law was the sole criterion in its activities: the interests of personal, corporate and Class on the back burner. It was so unusual that many Russians could not accommodate this, others swearing, and a third in his presence, began to feel dizzy - as on Mont Blanc. Given to the same exemplary restraint Victor Antonovich, . his even, . quiet nature and, again, rare for Russia's officialdom environment respectful attitude toward subordinates, . and to the "average citizen", . then the face of our hero emerges close to the ideal,
. No wonder, appointing 34-year Artsimovicha governor in Tobolsk, Nicholas I, a good way, a psychologist, always and all the "poked", spoke to him solely on the "you" ...
. To complete the picture we note that the official was exemplary and as an exemplary family man
. In 1854, shortly before his appointment in Tobolsk province, Victor A. married Anna Mikhailovna Zhemchuzhnikova. With friendly and very talented family Zhemchuzhnikov Artsimovich became close soon after his arrival in St. Petersburg. With his wife's brother Alexei, he studied in a class of the College of Law. In house Zhemchuzhnikov, where ever met a gay and an outstanding youth (Zhemchuzhnikov brothers, two of whom are poets, and one artist, their cousin, AK. Tolstoy - unforgettable Kozma bars), a young provincial, had to pull like a magnet. Moreover, the father of Anna Mikhailovna, Senator Zhemchuzhnikov, soon became his immediate supervisor ... Be that as it may, the marriage was an unusually happy. Anna Mikhailovna survived her husband, dedicating the last years the collection and publication of various materials on its activities.
"Tall, strong and stocky built ... where he appeared, Viktor Antonovich attracted general attention to its sonorous voice, which often heard the note of deep feeling, and especially his beautiful head, framed by snow-white haired.
. ... The good, the living, with a deep sweet, then a keen eye eyes shone vseponimayuschaya heat tolerant and forgiving heart, and smile big mouth betrayed a note of good-natured irony and affability man bred to the old way.
. ... Man piece, . bold and direct, . Victor A., . believing in the justice suggested by the experience and conscience of sight and finding a fair, . he was sincerely convinced, . use this view to the issue, . have not turned aside from the road, . and noisy, . loud words and strong gesture stated that, . what, . his opinion, . necessary and inevitable ..,
. Perhaps, however, the reproach of angularity, with that vivacity, which he brought into the controversy, and partly justified.
... In private life Artsimovich was extremely attractive. His attitude towards people there were always exquisite politeness, when he was in spirit, in an environment of nice people he brought him into the conversation a special recovery harmless jokes and guileless humor
CASE ON WINE EASTATE
From the XVII century. revenue from the sale of alcoholic beverages were the main revenue from the Russian government (in the XIX century. so-called drinking charges ranged from 1 / 4 to 1 / 3 of all government revenues). In this light heads in the higher spheres constantly sought new and new opportunities to increase these revenues. In 1826, Mr.. to this end were introduced wine repurchase. Their essence was that the monopoly right to trade in spirits drinks in a particular area were rented by auction to private individuals - for a time in a particular area. The state, therefore, immediately received large sums of money. Operators, in turn, quickly catch up, and with incredible vengeance, thanks to frank abuse. Chief among them were: the godless dilution of vodka water, unjustified increase in prices for "improved" varieties, unscrupulous froze buyers (vodka in bars traded on certain standard measurements: "charka", "bottle", "bucket").
. Tax farmers enriched incredibly fast
. No one in Russia was not at the hands of such funds, as they. Various officials and policemen who were supposed to fight the abuses were purchased at the root. In 1830-1850-ies in all provinces of itself imply that a large part of officials received double pay: less - from the treasury, and more - from tax-farmers.
Victor Antonovich was paying off the principal opponents of the system. Before arriving in Kaluga in the note on the causes of the decline of the provincial authorities', . written to the Minister of Internal Affairs Lansky, . noted: "With the gradual strengthening of the influence of tax-farmers and the myriad of wealth, . especially marked in the capital, . where the best houses have already made their property, . All Provincial Board is necessarily a paralytic state,
. Even well-intentioned and friendly governors do not dare to abuse repurchase ". Immediately on arrival in the province Artsimovich declared war on the tax-farmers.
The only possible, albeit weak, competitive tax-farmers were brewers. Tax farmers vexed them constantly, widely using the bribed local authorities, especially police. Brewers were forbidden to sell beer in the bottling, to open new stores without a permit (a permit could not be obtained), the number of old, fixed stalls has declined steadily. Beer consumption in Russia fell as the consumption of fruit liqueurs, herbalists. MUNICIPAL thrust upon them vodka and only vodka, with the most abhorrent quality.
Kaluzhskoye beer in the XIX century. was famous throughout central Russia. The tax-farmer and his henchmen stubbornly set against the Brewers Kaluga local police, which is an edge to them, excessively fined and even closed several stores. Brewers complained Artsimovich. He got a scolding the police rank and ordered to abolish all restrictive measures.
. Abuse-farmers in the late 50-ies led the resistance and the peasants - diluted vodka at a high price was perceived as an insult (it should be borne in mind "untimely": farmers, . awaiting release, . feared, . that they will consciously solder, . to cheat during the reform),
. The most extreme form of these sentiments - pogroms taverns, in which any power, of course, had to react sharply negative. In the majority of its farmers have spontaneously organized temperance societies. Entire village sign sentences, the obligation not to buy wine Taxed. Violators will be a boycott - in a Russian community penalties more severe than. These temperance societies Artsimovich took under his wing.
In both cases, actions have caused anger and the Governor of resistance: the part-farmers - open, police and officials of the Exchequer - backstage. With such rebelliousness the man with the ability to cope Victor Antonovich was not difficult. But his enemies have strong support in the center of the Minister of Finance Knyazhevich
. Already Breweries case "has caused Knyazhevich letter to the governor, in which the Minister said that in Kaluga farmer put in a difficult and disadvantageous position" and demanded that the governor had a farmer "special protection"
. Artsimovich replied very sharply: "special protection", he said, "is incompatible with the dignity of the Government". In this case Artsimovich won a decisive victory: as a result of its investigation into a number of officials, and in particular the police chief himself, were forced to resign.
. As temperance societies, there is a Victor Antonovich with the Minister of Finance started a real war
. Since this movement spread to several provinces, Knyazhevich startled and began to talk about Russia undermining the welfare of the Empire. Under his pressure Lanskoy Minister of the Interior issued a circular forbidding (!) Creation of Good. Artsimovich immediately Lansky has written a sharp letter: "On the properties of these circulars can be judged by the impression that they made. They rejoice tax farmers, police takers ... yes still itching and ignorant landowners, of which the first is inconvenient, and the other is afraid to deal with a reasonable, moral and honest farmer. Honest people resent. Many believe that the circular purchased tax-farmers.
Artsimovich authorized to take action against temperance societies only complaints affected by the peasants - "scabs" and complaints from the tax-farmer in the calculation does not take. A copy of his "explanations" Viktor Antonovich sent Lansky. He did not object. Kaluga governor won another victory.
In the late 50-ies of XIX century. Events in Russia at the provincial level changed dramatically: In place of measured, orderly stagnation of Nicholas finds a permanent strained Aleksandrovskij adjustment. Since 1856. starts active preparation of the peasant reform. Across the country, begin to work the provincial gentry committees set up under government pressure. Members of Parliament elected by the nobility of the local province, to discuss that in a nightmare would not wish to see: the abolition of serfdom.
. If previously the governor was enough to observe a certain ritual, . maintain a familiar and intuitive order, . do not get out of once and for all wound-routine clerical, . now before it becomes necessary to sensitively assess the situation, . respond quickly to events,
. Moreover - faced with the task to Nicholas times totally unprecedented - always take the initiative ... Governor "perestroika" era was supposed to quickly implement the unexpected and often extremely conflicting instructions from the center. Pressing gently as possible, the nobles, to try every effort to protect the province entrusted to him by peasant unrest. He had to constantly maneuver forces, previously frozen, but now who came to the active movement. Given how the officials of all ranks for thirty years, used to immobility, it is obvious that such acts were under the force of the elite only.
Our hero was just such.