Bukeikhanov Alikhan Nurmukhamed-uly( prominent public figure in Kazakhstan, one of the party leaders 'Alash horde', Commissioner of the Provisional Government of Kazakhstan)
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Biography Bukeikhanov Alikhan Nurmukhamed-uly
(1885 - 27 September 1937)
Bukeikhanov Alikhan Nurmukhamed-uly born in Karkalinskom region of Karaganda region in 1866, shot in Moscow on September 27, 1937. He studied at the Omsk Technical School, Faculty of Economics, Forestry Engineering Institute in St. Petersburg, after which led to the Omsk Academy of Forestry pedagogical and scientific work.
In 1903 he appeared in St. Petersburg 18 volume of collected under the title "Russia. Complete geographical description of our region ". In this volume, dedicated to Kazakhstan, one of the authors was Bukeikhanov, who wrote the section "Distribution of the Kyrgyz population (T. e. Kazakh) edge of the territory, its ethnographic composition, life and culture ". In this section, he gave an overview of a culture of Kazakh people, drawing materials "folk literature", highlighting in particular the analysis of the poem "Kozy-Korpesh and Bayan". What is remarkable is that it specifically identifies Abaya, commending him as a "representative of the new trend" in the Kazakh poetry. Bukeikhanov and later tried to Abay Russian reader, . and it is no accident, . because the generation of intellectuals, the Kazakhs beginning of XX century., . advocated the national self-determination of the Kazakh people, . overemphasized their ideological affinity with Abaem, . widely sought to learn the cultural heritage of the past as a stimulus to the awakening and development of national consciousness,
In 1904 Bukeikhanov worked with the expedition FA Shcherbina, prepares materials for a wide resettlement of Russian peasants to the land of the Kazakhs. In 1905 it was in the Constitutional Democratic Party, held a meeting in Semipalatinsk, Uralsk and to organize the Kazakh Branch of the Cadet Party. In 1905 Karkalinskom participated in the protest movement against tsarist oppression, organized 14,500 people signed a petition, known as Karkalinskaya petition. In 1905, Mr.. of the Semipalatinsk district was elected to the First State Duma Rossiyskuyu, participated in drafting the document, called the Vyborg Manifesto, condemning the dissolution of the tsarist Duma. During intense activity against the colonial policy of the tsarist autocracy was sitting in prison Semipalatinsk and Pavlodar. In 1905-1907 he worked in the cadet newspapers "Irtysh", "Omsk", "voice" as the editor. In the years 1910-1914 wrote a number of scientific articles in The New Encyclopaedia ", a collection of" Form a national movement in modern states "article" Kazakhs ". A major milestone in the quest to awaken the national consciousness of Kazakhs and organization among them education and learning is the publication of the newspaper "Kazakh", in what was attended, along with A. Bukeyhanovym Baytursinuli A. and M. Dulatov. It was a remarkable trio, indicated the birth of a democratic, patriotic and progressive Kazakh intelligentsia. Under the pseudonym "Kyr Balas" ( "Son of the steppes", "Stepniak"), he published in the newspaper "Kazak" article "Duma parties," the Duma and the Kazakhs "," August Bebel ". In 1916 he headed the department Bukeikhanov backward peoples nationwide Zemsky Congress. Idea zemstvos as wide local government, existing alongside the central government and its essential complement - an important element of the political program Bukeikhan. There is evidence that his name has been on the list of names of St. Petersburg Masonic lodge "Polar Star". The base of the Samara group of Freemasons has coincided with a meeting with Kerensky Bukeyhanova. There is also the view that appointment in 1917, A. H Bukeyhanova commissar of the Provisional Government of Kazakhstan took place at the will of the Masonic fraternity, caught at the helm. Founded in the year .1910 lodge "Ursa Minor" otherwise known as "organization Kerensky". Masonic movement, which arose in Russia after 1905, had close contacts with the French freemasonry. As a rule, the appointment of local government under Kerensky determined Masonic links that were recommended above all "brothers". Masonic organization as the bourgeois parties, in which it had influence, set out to overthrow the autocracy and the seizure of political power. AN Bukeikhan believed that it was through Freemasonry he is able to achieve their goals: with Russia and under its auspices to achieve autonomy in Kazakhstan, which includes its own parliament, government, ie. right to financial management and having its own legislation and several other attributes of independent statehood
. But his way with the Cadets and the Masons went after the February Revolution, . because he had ceased to find support among them in the most important issue - the granting of autonomy to the Kazakh people, . as well as other policy issues (land use and the relationship of church and state),
. His motives, he outlined in his article "Why I left the Cadet Party," noting as a fact discrepancies desire comrades in the Party and the Masonic "brothers" to preserve the empire under the existing borders. "
Self-determined, A. N. Bukeikhan creates a national political party Alash, ideological premises which were laid by the newspaper "Kazakhstan" released in 1913. In December 1917 on the initiative of a. Bukeikhan at P Vsekazahskom founding kurultai was proclaimed Alash Orda ", t. e. autonomy of the Kazakhs. He participated in the congress autonomists in Tomsk, Siberia, where it was decided to grant in the Siberian republic of autonomy Kazakhs.
In the civil war unleashed by the Bolsheviks, AN Bukeikhan and Alash ordintsy were on the "wrong side" along with Siberian governors until almost the end of 1919, when they were alone with the struggle for their new government. Alash ordintsam had to go to the only acceptable, albeit an extremely difficult decision - to enter into an agreement with the ideological and political opponents in exchange for a declaratory promise of preserving national autonomy. Personally, AN Bukeikhan had in these circumstances to abandon active political and public activity. He considered illegal and terrorist action of Lenin and the Bolsheviks' armed seizure of power. Since her conviction, he made in the article "Obschesibirsky Congress," published in 1917 in the newspaper Saryarka.
Since the idea of autonomy is not rejected by the Soviet regime, and Bukeikhan found it possible on the basis of legal work in the field of culture. Platform of Marxism and economic materialism, . seemed, . gave the conditions for a critical approach to national policy, . veiled talk of proletarian internationalism, . but really - imperial, . Russification, . and to methods of force-repressive plantation socialism,
. But even to uplift the activities A. Bukeikhan and other intellectuals who have risen on the crest of the growth of national consciousness, was seen not simply as the opposition and dissent, as well as "counter-revolutionary struggle against the Soviet power". Since the relationship with Alash-Orda "was one of the standard accusations against the Stalinist regime of the intellectual elite of the Kazakh people have a need for explanation. Historically, the term "Alash" was the common name for those ancient families, who subsequently received ethnonym "Kazakh". This is named after a party was formed on the initiative of a prominent Kazakh politician Alikhan Bukeyhanova and aims to achieve independence Kazakhs level of autonomy within Russia. The program of the Party Alash was proclaimed the first independent state in 1918, which at first view of the imperial policy of the Bolsheviks entered with them into conflict. Achieved between the Bolsheviks and the "Alash horde" compromise was subsequently flouted by the Bolsheviks, and the slogan "Alash ordinets-nationalist, an enemy of the people" became the basis of total repression against those who made the "brains of the nation"
. The most fundamental in the political heritage of Bukeyhanova - the idea of national self-government, . She was stand by him and his associates, . who had lost all power at its implementation, . proclaimed in December 1917, the State Alash-Orda, . and ultimately paid with their lives.,