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Ants-Amur Nikolai

( Governor General of Eastern Siberia)

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Biography Ants-Amur Nikolai
(11.08.1809 - 18.11.1881)
Appointment Muraveva Governor-General of Eastern Siberia has caused a lot of gossip. Dominated by envy: "Just 38 years old, and gave him half my kingdom - from the Ob River to the Pacific Ocean!"
He arrived in Irkutsk in March 1848. For anyone acquainted with the officials refused to shake hands - all of them were badly remembered in the audit report of Senator Tolstoy. Fear has prompted the statement, mentioning executed Decembrists Muraveva-Apostle: "I am not one of those Muravyovs, which hung. In which case, he will be hanged! "And he began to struggle against the machinations zolotopromysh-Lennikov, which proved to be unsafe - the criminal links of the chain were in St. Petersburg. Even more difficult was paying off with deeds - the abuse became the flesh and blood of the majority of merchants, solves all with bribes. Rejecting the "benefits" enjoyed by his pre-shestvenniki. Ants lead an ascetic life - worked long hours, getting up at 5 am. After drinking tea with rum and eating biscuit, came out in the city in a simple overcoat, without a bodyguard, visited government offices, markets, shops.
. "The capital of Siberia became mired in debauchery and bribery," - he decided.
. Some of his methods seemed bizarre, if not to say - wildly
. To combat prostitution Murav'ev ordered to issue prostitutes marry penalty box. Weddings were held as follows: men and women lined up on the growth of each other, then every soldier approached him facing girls and led to the church. After the wedding and festive-tion table newlyweds spent their wedding night in the barracks common. Then they were sent to the Amur. Ironically, the majority of marriages proved to be strong. Get a free one horse, wood for building houses, plows, harrows, the couple acquire a farm, children. These measures proved to be understandable and even desirable.
Having heard about the fair boss, began to come to Muravyov Buryat, Tungus, Yakut with complaints of harassment by their tribal chiefs and Russian. The solution to their problems, Lieutenant-General instructed the young official for special assignments Bernhard Struve, who began to defend their interests and fundamentally changed the attitude towards strangers.
. Ulus visiting schools, Murav'ev ordered them to enter into the teaching of Russian language
. This was the era of educating the natives. With a flair for talent, he invited a graduate of Kazan University Dorji Banzarov, the first Buryat scholar. In the retinue of the governor-general and was baptized drill Sychevskii Epiphanes, a connoisseur of Chinese language, which became an interpreter at the conclusion of the treaty Aigun (1858).
. Particular attention is paid Murav'ev religion - has worked closely with the archbishop, helped them to build churches, contributed to the king of the new provisions of the Buddhist clergy, which Hambo Lama approved by The highest literacy
. At first he was wary otno-silsya to shamanism. But seeing, . that the aliens all business - from hunting to plowing - spend a shamanistic prayers, . was himself taken shamanistic farewell to their travel, . "For the Amur case, . - He said, . - Ready to pray to Buddha, . Christ, . Mohammed and shamanic spirits.,
. "Amur case" was the main goal of the young governor-general
.
AFTER CONTRACT Nerchinsk 1689 g. Russian did not have the right to fly along the Amur. Using the absence of the Sea of Okhotsk in Russia's navy, the British and French invaded its own courts, which caught the fish, seals, whales, beaten. Ants said the king before his departure to Irkutsk: Amur has become a strategic channel for the protection of the Far East ". Nicholas I agreed: "It is difficult to protect the Amur from Kronstadt". Meanwhile, the expedition explored the lower reaches of the Amur Nevelskogo, which the Chinese are not claimed.
The first official voyage along the Amur Murav'ev held in May 1854. The steamer "Argun", built in Shilka, led a flotilla of 77 barges and rafts, loaded with guns, gunpowder, soldiers. All this was delivered to the lower reaches of the Amur River, part went out to Kamchatka, where ants chose the place of batteries in Avacha Bay.
Crimean War, failed to Russia, was in the Far East. The British and French sent a squadron of 6 warships in Avachinskaya Bay. Petropavlovsk defended only 347 soldiers and sailors. They were able to reflect the storm. Special role played by the battery installed Muraviev. Tags fire had severely damaged the enemy ship shot down the flag flag, killed Admiral Price. The outcome of the battle decided to melee fighting.
The news of the victory came in Irkutsk only 2.5 months later, on November 6 and 7 there were solemn prayers, and drove through the streets of the British flag, seized on Kamchatka ...
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Chinese officials initially resisted the establishment of borders along the Amur. But Murav'ev managed to convince them of the friendliness of Russia. May 16, 1858, Mr.. Aygun was signed in the historical treatise on the border between Russia and China along the Amur. The Chinese have noted this event unprecedented illyumi-nation in Beijing. Large celebrations were held in Blagoveshchensk, Chita, Irkutsk, and elsewhere in Siberia.
"Europe looks at us with envy, America with delight, - said at the ceremony in Irkutsk. - Not everyone can imagine how to get the river in nearly four thousand miles away and the space of one million square miles, do not cut your finger, without the turmoil and fear not only for Russia but for the places adjacent to the edge ... "
. To achieve this could only person that has passed through numerous battles, and therefore knows the value of life and death
. Ants at war in the Balkans and the Caucasus, he hated the blood needlessly. The new border into Russia Amur, Khabarovsk and Primorsky Krai, Sakhalin.
August 26, 1858, Mr.. from St. Petersburg received the royal rescript to erect Muraveva in the Count's dignity with the title Amur.
14 years of trial ANTS-Amur in office Governor-General of Eastern Siberia. You might have to work more, but thought: "Nobody should be in one place for more than 10 years, or it accumulates fat, and no sense of it". He persuaded, but he replied: "Peresluzhivat - a crime."
Streets and squares full of people of Irkutsk, everyone knows that the Governor-General is leaving forever. People with tears in his eyes say goodbye to him. The count went to Ascension Monastery. After the service he bring to the hands of supporters on the street intercept the peasants, then - aliens. "Him and fell to the lot, - recalled B. Milutin, - say a last farewell: "We Count, you will not forget. Do not forget you and us! "Set off the wagon. Everyone stood bareheaded, who was baptized, who fled back ... Faster and Faster moving vehicles, and people had long stood bareheaded. And involuntarily thought: "Sunset Dawn of Siberia".
He died after 20 years in Paris. Even after 10 years, . 1891-m, . five meter bronze sculpture of Opekushin was transported by train from St. Petersburg to Odessa, . thence south seas - the Far East, . and then - across Lake Hanka, . Ussuri River to Khabarovsk, . where it is installed on you-juice rock Cupid,
. In 1929 Ants had been removed, instead it installed Lenin, he stood for 60 years.
. A year after the proclamation of independence of Russia ashes Muraveva-Amur was removed from Paris and solemnly buried in the center of Vladivostok, and a year later restored to its former place a monument in Khabarovsk.
. Ants-Amur is Aigun contract with a scroll in his hands.


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Ants-Amur Nikolai, photo, biography Ants-Amur Nikolai  Governor General of Eastern Siberia, photo, biography
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