BARACK Ehud( Prime Minister of Israel)
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Biography BARACK Ehud
Early elections to the Knesset (Parliament) of the 15 th convocation and the direct election of prime minister, held in Israel 17 May 1999, Ehud Barak won the election - the chairman of the Labor Party (Labor) and leader of the Yisrael Echad "(" One Israel "). And the victory, which many observers called "a more than convincing."
For Barak, cast their votes (and perhaps hearts) 56 percent of voters. His rival - Prime Minister (now former) Binyamin Netanyahu, who is also leader of the right-wing Likud party, received 44 percent.
Political career of the new head of government was lightning fast and exactly corresponds to his name. "Barack" is translated from Hebrew means "lightning". This surname premiere - brougham. Her are his elderly parents - the father of Israel, who was born in the Lithuanian Panevezys, and then turned out in Melitopol, and Esther's mother, who was born in Warsaw, the family arrived there from Smolensk, and three brothers.
. Only Ehud, named after the biblical hero, Ben-Gera, changed his name
. He explains this by saying that the army its all-time maimed and correct it, calling it Broch, then Brooke and even Bervig ".
Unfortunately, most of the biographies of Barak, as always, impossible to discern a stamped "Top Secret". But even the visible part of this admittedly wonderful life and affects a matter of respect.
SOLDIER NUMBER ONE
Ehud Barak was born in 1942 in Kibbutz Mishmar HaSharon. Vivid memories of childhood - the British are looking at Kibbutz weapons cache. Ehud leads them to the pomegranate tree and said: "This is a grenade."
I must say that from childhood he had delivered nothing but trouble for parents. Teachers with one voice talking about his pathological laziness, the incredible stubbornness, tendency to conflict. In the end, at the end of grade 11, they told him: "You are transferred to the 12-th class, but that the school did not appear". So the matriculation exams Barak had to take the latest student.
. Then, when he was an officer in the IDF (Israel Defense Forces), he brilliantly finished two faculties - Physics and Mathematics at the Jewish University in Jerusalem and computer engineering from Stanford University in the U.S.
. At first he received a bachelor's degree, in the second - Master. But all this happens much later, in the 70-ies ...
And in 1961, the 18-year-old Barak will begin its service in the IDF. At the cost of tremendous effort will make directions in the "Sayeret matkal" - special task force to combat terror, the men who had almost daily face death. "Sayeret matkal was founded in early 1958 and represented a small group, which easily accommodated in a minibus.
According to Barak, his service in this office from the beginning is going well. Quite quickly he became the darling of the founder and commander of Special Forces teams Abraham Arnau. He is constantly thinking up various "military action", which literally counted based on the individual qualities of Barack. He still remembers the night raids in Arab villages. It was there where any unknown man immediately caught the eye, commandos were to work out the art of camouflage, the ability to merge with the local population, without causing too many questions.
Serious physical training, endless drills and tactical exercises gradually became part of his consciousness. Compared with experienced commando, he was, in fact, more young. And the more gratifying was aware that he was gradually tightened to the veterans, turned into a mature fighter.
Important role in strengthening the authority of Barak played his unique ability to navigate in unfamiliar terrain. Nobody knew how to quickly and accurately determine the shortest path to the goal, as he. Every day and every hour spent in spetsnaz, Barak persuaded that the choice is made is correct.
. Incidentally, Barack still remains the first and the last soldier in the history of the Israeli special forces, special school and graduated from the scouts, and infantry officer training
. Before and after he graduates razvedshkolu invariably refer to the course of operations department at the General Staff of the IDF, which were shorter and easier procedure. Barak was able to convince their commanders, and he was allowed to undergo infantry officers. By the time he finally decided to connect his life with the army. Other way, he has for himself is not represented.
In mid-1962 after the successful completion of officer courses Barak returned to Special Forces, where he was invited to take command of operational reconnaissance detachment. He had an excellent opportunity to prove themselves truly. And he used this opportunity in full ...
When the period expired an additional service in the army, Barack signed a contract to re-enlist. After that, he was appointed deputy commander of the unit for special operations. Due to the fact that he has agreed to remain a professional military, he received from his command as a reward for the excellent service an unusual gift - a trend in France for a special commando training.
. The first day of the Six Day War, began on 5 June 1967, Barack was attached to Special Forces at the disposal of the division, which was stationed in the northern Sinai and the Gaza Strip
. Curiously, but super-fast pace of the Six Day War with the Israeli special forces had played a cruel joke. Whatever the task may get Commando, they did not even had time to gather in the road. They were ahead of any military aircraft or tank units. Manifest itself in a similar situation was extremely difficult.
On the fifth day of the war, a group of Barack has been relocated to the Golan Heights, which has made a daring raid into Syria. After successful operation, during which the base was captured by the opponent, Barak came across a brand new Mercedes, which serviced a Syrian general. Not long thinking, he decided to take the car as a trophy. Then went down on him with the Syrian hills and parked his car near the house of his militant fellow Menachem Digli. So to say, as a gift. Early in the morning the neighbors found a Mercedes with Arabic numbers, and terribly frightened and called the police.
Once Digli Barak offered to buy land in East Jerusalem. Imagine his surprise when Barack flatly refused.
-PochemuN - asked Digli. - After all the land can be bought for pennies.
-Because this land is not ours, - said Barak and explained: "She - Arabic: We have it annexed: The day will come when it will return. Is it worth throwing money at veterN
Later, during one of his trips to the occupied territories, Barak and Digli were on a high hill. From there, spectacular panorama of East Jerusalem and part of the Judean Desert.
. -Look what a beauty! - Exclaimed Digli.
. In response, Barak shrugged and said:
. We are now in-euphoria: You know, is the internal state of transition from a native of a small country to host a large
. I am convinced that these territories will be only a temporary guarantee. Arabs need time to understand: we are not animals, we are not enemies of. We just want, as they live on their land. When they realize this when they want to get close to us really, all this has to be restored. Sinai, Judea, Samaria, the Golan Heights ...
Yom Kippur War (Yom Kippur), which began on October 6, 1973, Barak found at Stanford University. Two hours after it started he was sitting in a chair flight bound for Israel. A few hours later, he took command of the armored regiment.
In 1981, the year Barack became the youngest general IDF.
They say that we are too early to assign you the title - a joke then Defense Minister Yitzhak Rabin. - Like, you're still not enough gunpowder smelled ...
. Barak said:
. Napoleon once said that if he gave a marshal's baton, depending on who and how much gunpowder smelled, his marshals would be extremely donkeys.
. Perhaps it was at that time and to identify those special relationship between Barak and Rabin, who remained until his death.
. In 1982, Barak led the army intelligence service, Aman, and in 1986 he was appointed commander of Central Command
. In 1987 he became Deputy Chief of General Staff.
1 st April 1991, Major General Barak was appointed the 14 th Chief of General Staff of the Israel Defense Forces. Soon his shoulder adorned with epaulets Lieutenant General - the highest rank in the IDF.
. During, . when he engaged in this position, . Israeli newspapers reported, . Barak, with its two higher technical education is a "secret weapon" of Israel, . that he was the man, . which is the best can prepare the army for electronic warfare XXI century,
. In fact, Barak had to deal with other problems - to order the closure of the Gaza Strip and "controlled" areas, . leave the army to suppress mass demonstrations Palestinians, . sit with them at the negotiating table, . fly in the "security zone" in southern Lebanon.,
. In Israel, Barak called the "soldier number one"
. And no wonder: it has the largest number of awards among Israelis still alive - five marks of distinction on the battlefield. According to our terminology - five-time "Hero of Israel". And all five times he was honored with this honor during their service in the army special. His first award Barak received in 1963 for carrying out daring operations in Syria. Are those people in top management, the IDF knew about the incredibly complex problems, which were pinned on Barak. In 1971, he commanded the operation, developed by the Israeli intelligence service Mossad, in which the right of the General Staff of the Syrian army were abducted by five officers in exchange for Israeli pilots who were captured by the Syrians. It was he who in 1972 conducted a lightning-fast (just 90 seconds) operation to free hostages taken by terrorists in the plane of the Belgian airline Sabena ". It was he who in April next year led "Operation Spring of Youth" to eliminate the Palestinian leaders who lived in the Lebanese capital. Dressed in women's clothing (say, he looked quite charming blonde), Barak broke into the house and together with other commandos shot and killed three eminent Palestine Liberation Organization. They were responsible for the murder in September 1972, Israeli athletes during the Munich Olympics. He also took part in many covert operations, the time for the story which has not yet arrived ...
On the last day of his service in spetsnaz Barak received the fifth badge of honor, which, incidentally, was very surprised. Just at that time, any operations under his command has not been. However, the Chief of Staff David Elazar, in presenting the award, said that she would be summed up as all the years and all the operations that special forces conducted under the direct command of Barack.
. In resigning from his post as chief of staff, he confessed:
. -The Army was for me an adventure, adventure
. I'm really curious. Curiosity - the main motive of my life.
In early 1995, in Kibbutz Ogen Lt. Gen. Ehud Barak, personal number 448200, in the circle of close friends said goodbye to the army, concluded a brilliant career from private to chief of staff. At the event attended by Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, senior politicians and ministers, senior officers and prominent public and spiritual leaders, famous actors, musicians.
Each of them in varying degrees to Barack reminded about the past and experiences. Evoked in his mind filled with the blood of comrades and enemies of the battlefield, . risky, . stored in a deep secret special forces operations, . short-lived hours of simple human communication and recreation, . there is no need, . habit, . fumble on a canvas belt holster.,
. The special peculiarity of the evening was that everyone present knew: Barack farewell to the army does not mean the end of a brilliant career
. Person who has everything imaginable and unimaginable test, used to fall asleep to the roar of cannon fire and wake up on command "Alarm", an army general Barak decided to become a general and in politics.
It was a balanced, organic solution. Throughout his life he was only ahead, proschityvaya every step, patiently building itself and its future. Barack always knew what would happen next, what it is and which way to go to the goal.
Barack has always been a favorite of Yitzhak Rabin. On that memorable evening, when the stage got the Prime Minister, everyone knew that his political career would be linked with Rabin and the Labor Party.
"You always knew how to think and you have the courage to take responsible decisions - said then head of government, turning to his favorite. - I was the first combat general in Israel, who became prime minister. So, who knows: I wish you success, Ehud!
The response has always guarded Barack at such a promising speech the Prime Minister was only a fleeting smile. He always knew how to hide themselves in grief and joy ...
. Then he climbed onto the stage, General Amnon Lipkin-Shahak, Barak's deputy at the General Staff, who replaced him later in this post (and now one of the leaders of the centrist party "Merkaz" - rival "Labor in the recent elections).
. -Ehud continues his career like a torpedo with a smart warhead - said Lipkin-Shahak
. - It shall be the goal of a completely silent, but the radius of its action is very broad. Let him not deceive himself the one who thinks that the torpedo by the name of Ehud Barak someone running. He does not need a tip-off. He chooses a goal and himself at the last minute can change the course. But what is no doubt, it is that Barack necessarily achieve the objective sought by.
Supervisory Lipkin-Shahak gave the most accurate description of the personality of Barack - "smart torpedo. With perfectly calibrated rate and coefficient of efficiency.
In the final months of the Chief of General Staff, Barak sat on a rigid diet and dropping a few pounds, bought "presentation". He knew that the political career he is assured. Each party will be glad to get him into their ranks. And he was not mistaken. Leaders of Labor not only persuaded Barak to join them, but then nominated him to the forefront of. Party, . capitulating (such is the opinion of opponents) before the Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat, . which went to territorial concessions and was unable to protect the vital interests of the country, . was covered with badly needed military glory, General,
. To correct the image.
This, indeed, explains the unprecedented rapid political career of Barack. True, many in Israel regretted then, that his "fighting falcon, skidded to the company plucked pigeons and noisy crows". Nevertheless, in July 1995, a retired general, joined the Labor Party and became a cabinet of Yitzhak Rabin, Minister of Interior. In November of that year after the assassination of Prime Minister received the government of Shimon Peres, the portfolio of Minister of Foreign Affairs. After the 1996 elections - MK 14-th convocation.
In June 1997, Barak was elected Chairman of Labor. The majority of party members supported him, confident that only he can defeat Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu in the upcoming elections. To be fair to say that after his election, his long time unable to gain popularity. He was unable to forge a coherent alternative political course Netanyahu. His speech amounted to a constant repetition of the same slogans, consisting of arranged in a different order of the words "peace", "security", "disengagement". Barak repeating them, forgetting to explain publicly how it intends to defend the interests of Israel at the talks with Arafat. He demanded the acceleration of the "peace process", but he could not answer what the requirements ready to sacrifice.
. Moreover, becoming chairman of Labor, Barak compromised scandalous statements and inability to repel the attacks of journalists
. If the Israeli media treated him as to Netanyahu, leader of "Labor" would have very hard times. But fortunately for him, Israeli media are merciful to the "left".
As a result, in the absence of a clear political platform, and an inability to present a balanced thoughts to reporters, his newfound popularity Barak was obliged only errors Netanyahu. Perceived supporters of opposition leader left the camp as an alternative to the personality of the Prime Minister, not his policies.
Soon, however, Barak realized that since he led Labor, lost two important years. And the situation has deteriorated further since it is difficult to carry out reforms when it was about early elections. To win, you must change the priorities of the Party.
He also realized that in order for people to want to join it, they should be in something greater than. "If you imagine an unpopular and is not a promising party - reasoned Barak - it needs to update. Otherwise, why should someone who, according to polls ahead of you, to unite with you. "
Realizing all this, the leader of the Labor Party "in late 1998 announced the creation of a new political movement Yisrael Echad" (One Israel). His program offers a change of party leadership, . establishment of political clubs instead of the existing field and the shift of issues of public nature in areas such as school and higher education, . Housing, . Economy, . unemployment, . fight against crime, etc.,
. According to Barak's desire to address these problems should be the ideology of "One Israel". In other words, he is quite clearly removed himself from the left image of the companion to the Labor Party and former Prime Minister Shimon Peres, defeated in the 1996 election. He turned toward the right and turned to the moderate wing voters with a focus on the economy and a solid approach to security.
. Should be added that Barak's decision to organize a new movement was the realization that the concept of "Labor Party" is already outdated, that it practically does not exist anymore
. But "One Israel" - is merely a slogan, but did not change party name.
Realizing the complexity of the situation and not wanting to lose the election, Barak requested the assistance of foreign experts. It will be recalled that in his time Netanyahu was poured tubs of dirt just for the fact that he had hired an American adviser for the campaign.
. Barak has invited not one but three at once, at one time leading up to the White House, Bill Clinton
. What was he advised those konsultantyN find out it was easy. The political vocabulary of the candidate for prime minister was enriched by the words "poverty", "unemployment", "education" and the slogan "A vote for Netanyahu, you are voting for the increase in unemployment and poverty."
. Americans are advised Barak to focus on the economy, avoiding the awkward left-politics
. But the problem is not the. Since 1967, the main issue on the agenda was the Arab-Israeli conflict. Therefore, focusing on the economy, Barak tried to evade answering questions relating to international relations and defense. But it is in these vital issues are taken vital decisions on which depends the future of the Jewish state.
. However, no matter what slogans are used in the Barak campaign, he said, according to observers, has become unrecognizable
. It was quite difficult to make the transition from war hero to political leader. But during the 5-month campaign marathon, he demonstrated his fighting qualities, and this transformation he failed. At the end of the campaign, the Israelis saw the other huts, rather than at the beginning. He even began to call "a new voice in Israeli society."
Moreover, in opinion polls, Barak ahead of not only his main rival - Benjamin Netanyahu, but other contenders for prime minister. But does this mean that he overcame all difficulties and confidently embarked on the path leading to the cherished kresluN Certainly not: But Barak - won ...
. In his opening speech, referring to the population, he said:
. -Citizens of Israel! Today you choose hope, not fear or fear
. As of today, not a choice - peace or security. There is only one choice - the world plus security.
Barak pledged to finalize a peace with the Palestinians. And immediately warned of tough conditions negotiations, . including the essential elements, . as, . example, . inability to return to 1967 borders, . indivisibility of Jerusalem and the preservation of most Israeli settlements in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.,
. The new prime minister also pledged throughout the year to withdraw Israeli troops from southern Lebanon in the new peace talks with Syria
. According to him, Israel is ready to make territorial concessions in the Golan Heights as a condition for a peace treaty with Damascus.
In the Arab world, the victory of Barack brought a sigh of relief. After Netanyahu represented the most radical and extremist segments of Israeli society. The reaction of the West - very positive.
Formed a new Barak (18 th in a row) government was sworn in on 6 th July 1999. The next day the Israelis dubbed it "the strangest in the history of the Government of Israel". One of the oddities is that it is - the most unprofessional office. Suffice it to say that the Attorney General has no legal education, and transport minister, headed the former government defense establishment. With other ministers of the situation is not better ...
Barak has managed to arrange his ministers so that they are the least suited to their posts. According to experts, this is not a coincidence, but masterstroke. His goal - to neutralize potential opposition within the government. New Premier wanted to create a team that no one in her "Keep it safe and do not obscure the figure head of government. In the key areas of public life, he set up the "their" people loyal to him personally. Barak talks with ministers, but not advised, because "the board does not need". Nobody in the government does not know the real purpose of the Prime Minister on any issue.
Those who know Barak's people say it - the identity of polysyllabic. His analytical mind immediately prepares information that comes to him on several channels. Analyzing a problem, he not only comes to the heart, but also offers several options for possible solutions.
In life he most appreciates the dynamics of. He does not tolerate long-established concepts of rigid representations, mechanical simplification. After all, life does not fit into any formula, nor in the concept. Therefore, many did not know how he left the Likud and the right of the "Labor".
Co-workers, however, indicate that Barak - personality in many ways contradictory, are not amenable to detailed analysis at a glance. On the one hand, it is - a typical 'sixties, very sociable, companionable, a lover of good-natured jokes and chit-chatting the night with friends around the campfire ... In his youth, even worked in a private detective agency. He has golden hands, he can easily make out the car engine or rapidly plucked chicken. But his real hobby - is the disassembly and subsequent assembly of watches.
On the other hand, Barack is not so simple and not so available as it would like to see his entourage. It can fly at night and hold on the solution of some analytical problems. She likes classical music, plays the piano. Homage to Leo Tolstoy and Alexander Solzhenitsyn.
Generally, Russian culture was of special significance in my life - admitted in an interview with Barack. - Sounds of the Russian language I heard at home in early childhood. I knew the letters of the Latin language and the Cyrillic alphabet. I remember that at our house there were magazines Ogonyok and "Crocodile".
When Barack became older, his father made him read the classics translated into Hebrew Gogol, Dostoevsky, Tolstoy. A mother peddling his "Pan Tadeusz" by Adam Mickiewicz. But he preferred prose then poetry. He was in love with Anna Akhmatova
According to those same colleagues, this man - a clot of contradictions, which oddly mixed harsh military education and the spirit of high technology. Certain sentimentality and unusual rigidity in matters of principle. Adventurism characteristic still quite a young man, and pragmatism inherent in mature people.
In the barracks constantly not just live, but inexplicably get on serious contradictions between past and future. This internal struggle leads sometimes to a complete rejection of this. One could say that Barack belongs to the category of people who themselves create problems by themselves and they decide. However, it should be noted that in creating these problems, it also can draw the right conclusions, to never have them not return.
Succeeding in 1995 on a tunic jacket, a former chief of staff, still not accustomed to wearing civilian clothes. Although it has had time to visit as Minister of Interior, and then Foreign Affairs. According to observations of the Israeli journalists, Barak habit now and then puts his hands waist pants, as if he was still army girded with a belt. Generalskie note in her voice is not leaking, but chopped the exact wording and rigid, dogmatic tone left no doubt that before you a man of military quenching and military training.
. What would become Barack, if not military kareraN It is possible that all his inclinations may be frustrated
. The army helped him to avoid this. He gave the army a lot. But the army gave him no less. For Barak - a man of two poles: on one - a hard, sharp mind, on the other - subtle, sensitive susceptibility. It took the Army hardening, to achieve the interaction of these qualities in the correct proportions.
In the army to the barracks are different. Some argue that he is, he is responsible for the demoralization, for those cases of bullying, which have recently occurred with increasing frequency, with the weakening of its power, finally. According to them, Barak became the first chief of staff, who brought their political sympathies and antipathies in the army, dismissing those officers who openly adhere to right-wing views.
. From the military-intelligence Barak became a normal rat headquarters, reducing scores with their enemies and conceiving the dirty intrigues - these people say.
. But there are other opinions
. Many believe that Barack never stooped to petty settling of accounts, but demanded severe punishment of those who caused the accident happened extraordinary. He does not recognize any authority, when it comes to national security. In this matter he did not renounce anything.
Barack is married and has three daughters. The eldest, Michael, - lawyer. Average, Yael, is a student at the University. Younger, Anat, is engaged in school. Nava's wife, a teacher by profession, - the daughter of Solomon and Rachel Coen, whose ancestral roots in Spanish Morocco, Corsica, and in Toledo.
They met in 1968, when sitting next to the university library. Ehud listened through headphones to classical music, and Nava, a student of English department, read Shakespeare. Without saying a word, he pushed the girl to the newspaper with the programs of cinemas, where it was encircled in the name of one of the films, and there was a question mark. Nava placed next to an exclamation ...
They married a year later. Many years later, giving an interview to a reporter, Nava confessed:
-When you live close to Ehud, you experience a feeling of uncertainty. It could disappear at any moment. When we got married, he was captain. While getting to the chief of staff, I realized what it means, if the forces at the end ...
Friends of the family Barak said that Nava tried to influence her husband. But in the end, realized it was impossible and surrendered.
. When the 1 st January 1995 ended term of office of Barack Chief of Staff, Nava thought that stress, do not leave it for almost thirty years, has finally ended
. She dreamed of seeing her husband a successful businessman, earning lots of money and conducting all evening at home. But Barak leaned into politics ...
Nava worked in school and not going to abandon their profession. Still, she often had to miss lessons: the husband traveled abroad, and she had to accompany him, then had some difficulty, and she had to solve them.
. Only after Barak became Minister of Foreign Affairs, Nava realized that it must make a choice and took the work of "indefinite leave"
. Friends of the family believe that Barak is benefited
The full composition of the family gathers every Friday. Friday meal for Nava, able and loving to cook, - a sacred cause.
Barak three idol - Ben-Gurion, De Gaulle and Churchill. This suggests that in the future government will not be a collective leadership.
|WBF for BARACK Ehud
|Dear Barack gospodiin, . I invite you to become a member of the board of trustees of the Kirov representation of the International Children's Charity Fund "Filtim Foundation." Sincerely, . Manager-Executive Director, . fundraisers Zorin, Alexander V., General Director of the Kirov Branch Noskov Vladimir,