Yitzhak Shamir (Izhak SHAMIR)( was elusive, the underground terrorist)
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Biography Yitzhak Shamir (Izhak SHAMIR)
Once upon a time, Yitzhak Shamir was elusive, the underground terrorist who hunts for the British mandate authorities in Palestine. Once he was ... However, what he just was not ... Today he is - an ordinary Israeli citizen, a retired local, living memories.
... Shortly before the resignation of Shamir in an interview with British newspaper 'Sunday Times' reported on a few little-known details.
It turns out he likes red wine, looking at pretty women, three times a week to make long walks. And prefers to walk, where many birds and flowers. Names of most birds it, he said, do not know, but tell a sparrow from the eagle may. During these walks he likes to think, come to mind to new thoughts, which he returned home required records, not to forget.
He completely lacking technical skills. Therefore, his wife Shulamit engaged in resolving small domestic failures. Incidentally, it also picks Shamir - Ties - usually silk with a red or blue pattern. In the hot summer months it is usually not of a tie, wearing a shirt with open collar. Each year, sew two or three suits at the tailor in Tel Aviv. He generally likes people are well dressed, but without extravagance. But the tuxedo does not recognize the Israeli Prime. According to him, the man in the dress looks like a circus master of the horse or the doorman.
Of course, this interview was not some shocking revelation. And, nevertheless, the majority of Israelis (and not only they) knew almost nothing (though they know whether segodnyaN) of its former prime minister. Although many years he was at the center of Israeli public opinion: he was chairman of the Knesset (Israeli Parliament), Minister of Foreign Affairs, the head of the government within five years
. This is largely due to the peculiarities of its secretive nature
. For Shamir formed in the ranks of the underground terrorist 'Leumi Irgun zwei' ( 'National Military Organization') and 'Leahy' ( 'Freedom Fighters of Israel'), and later - in the Israeli intelligence 'Mossad'. Hence - the habit is nothing about me not to tell. First, in his opinion, this is not ethically. Secondly, it could be dangerous if the enemy will take away from the story required him to the attention. In short, Shamir - professional conspirator.
. But, . when a few years ago I met with the stunted man with a large head on a short neck, . I could not imagine, . that he was daring the underground-terrorist, . brought a lot of trouble the British mandate authorities in Palestine,
. And yet, this is so.
In life Shamir were terrorist acts, and not only against the British, but against the Arabs. The arrests, escapes, participation in combat operations. True, it was sixty-odd years ago, when there existed the state of Israel, and the future prime minister wore his real name - Ezernitsky.
He was born in 1915 in Poland, in the town Ruzinovo. After the Jewish school in Bialystok entered the Law Faculty, Warsaw University. At the same time became an active member of the Zionist youth organization 'Beitar'. In twenty years, dropped out and headed to Palestine. The parents and two sisters remained in Poland, where he died at the hands of the Nazis.
In Palestine, Shamir entered illegally. Nevertheless, managed to enter the University of Jerusalem. In 1937 he joined the organization 'zwei Leumi Irgun', which led an active struggle against the British mandate. That's when he changed his name to the current Ezernitsky - Shamir, which translated from Hebrew means 'stone, which nig'.
Even in those years, the British arranged for him to hunt. Almost every building hung his portraits with a large sign: "Wanted a dangerous offender '. Column - 'distinguishing marks' stated: height - 160 cm, thick eyebrows, large ears, unkempt appearance, disguised as a rabbi.
But Shamir adroitly eluded British agents-spies. But not always ...
In 1940 he broke with the 'zwei Leumi Irgun', because this movement was, as later recalled Shamir, 'too modest'. In the same year he joined the other terrorist organizations - Lehi, better known as 'group Stern'. Soon he became one of its leaders, he took his underground name 'Michael'.
In 1941, the British managed to seize a fanatical terrorist. But he escaped by hiding under the guise of a rabbi. Since January 1942, Leahy has strengthened the struggle against the British. Its members were killed in Cairo of Lord Moyne - British Minister for the Middle East, and several senior officers of the British administration.
. In the same year, after the death of Lehi leader Avraham Stern (he was killed in a British prison officer), Shamir again reorganized and led the organization
. According to eyewitnesses, at the time he was noted for cruelty. Kill British soldiers, mined their bodies and tied to the orange trees.
In 1946, Shamir was arrested again. But this time he managed to escape. First, in Eritrea (Ethiopia), from there to the neighboring French colony of Djibouti, then - in France, where she asked for political asylum
In Palestine, Shamir did not return until 1948, when it was proclaimed a Jewish state. He again became one of the leaders of Lehi. He was among those who prepared the assassination of Count Folke Bernadotte - UN mediator for the Middle East. On 17 September the same year, militants from the Lehi (according to some Shamir was among them) shot him in Jerusalem.
After the killing, Israeli Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion banned Lehi. But until now, many Israelis believe this extremist organization 'blot on the history of the country'.
Left is not destiny, Shamir leaned in business. Because he probably would have made a good businessman, but in Israel there are people who remembered the military past 'Michael' and called him in 1955 under the banner of the secret service 'Mossad'. During the ten years of work in this field, he was promoted to deputy head of the agency.
Remembering those years, Shamir still repeats:
- Once you have shot your enemy, make a second shot, to make sure he is dead. Bang!
In 1965, Shamir left the 'Mossad' and for five years spent in complete obscurity, doing (quite unsuccessfully) business. He was director of the small factory for the production of rubber gaskets. Each morning, the future prime minister sat in the bus (driving a car he does not know until now) and drove in Petach-Tikva. Dreary succession of days dragged by, filled with meetings with business people. After all, it was necessary to sell gaskets. The years passed ...
. But one day he went to his little factory, and went to the headquarters right nationalist party 'Herut', which was headed by Menachem Begin - his colleague on the underground.
. - Welcome, Isaac! - Said to him, the former commander of 'zwei Leumi Irgun'
. - Feels like home.
In the same year, Shamir was elected a member of the executive committee, and after five years - its chairman. Membership in the 'Herut' entry into the block right-wing Likud, Shamir gave the opportunity to take in December 1973, deputy chair of the Knesset, where he was elected to the Committee on Defense and Foreign Affairs.
. May 17, 1977, he became its Speaker
. Incidentally, it was Shamir led the historic meeting, which in November 1977 addressed by the President of Egypt Anwar Sadat.
. In March 1980, in connection with the resignation of Moshe Dayan, the then Prime Minister Begin, Shamir appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs
. By taking this position, he immediately proclaimed the three 'no'. 'No' - the return of Israel to the 1967 borders. 'No' - the creation of an independent Palestinian state. 'No' - the return of the Arabs of East Jerusalem.
. Sharp-tongued Israeli journalists immediately nicknamed Shamir 'Mr No'.
. Onrush of the future prime minister in 'Herut' explained that his disagreement with Begin were tactical and never had an ideological
. In addition, Begin appealed volitional qualities Shamir.
But his finest hour came in September 1983. He, as they say, went up the hill. First he was elected chairman 'Herut' and at the same time block leader Likud. In October 1983, Prime Minister Begin, unexpectedly resigned and Shamir received the highest state post, and retaining the portfolio of Minister of Foreign Affairs.
. His candidate is suitable for all, because he was determined to defend the ideological doctrine of his predecessor
. Suit and the fact that Shamir was not a large-scale public figure, and large-scale performer, with indomitable perseverance in following the path envisaged by someone else will. That was his strength. But at the same time, and weakness.
His first premiership lasted long. November 13, 1984 after losing elections to Labor Party leader Shimon Peres, he gave him the chair of Prime Minister. However, only two years, as the established Government of National Unity was to be rotated between the Prime Minister Shamir and Peres.
. Indeed twenty-five months - in October 1986 - Shamir once again took the chair of Prime Minister
. Now for a long time ..
. He went to pursue its policy of rapprochement with the United States, contributed to progress in relations between Israel and the Soviet Union, who exchanged consular delegations.
. Politics in the Arab countries have not undergone any changes
. Shamir reiterated that Israel "does not intend to leave the controlled areas'. Palestinians offered a 'form of limited autonomy'. The construction of settlements will continue.
- We have the right to live in all parts of our country - he repeated incessantly.
Many in Israel recognized then that the Prime Minister obviously lacks realism. Shamir also was convinced that it is distinguished by its 'realism in any form'.
In late December 1988, Israel held regular elections to the Knesset 12-th convocation. After lengthy negotiations, the coalition was re-formed national unity government headed by Shamir.
Since taking office, he immediately took up the matter of the Arab-Israeli relations. His new peace initiative, including the self-selected population of the occupied territories of the municipalities within the Authority, May 14, 1989 was approved by the Government. Three days later - approved by the Knesset.
But this government lasted only a year and four months. In December 1989, Shamir deduced from the Cabinet of Ministers Ezer Weizman, accused him of contacts with representatives of the Palestine Liberation Organization. In March next year Shamir 'away' resignation Labor Party leader Shimon Peres, Minister of Finance. All the ministers from the party immediately resigned and two days later, by a vote of no confidence, it fell.
Within three months of the transitional government headed by Shamir. As a result of the unprecedented difficulties of coalition talks to him, in the end succeeded: June 11, 1990 was inaugurated on 24 th government, which he headed.
. The main tasks of his Cabinet, Prime Minister announced the absorption of mass Aliyah (repatriation) of Jews from the Soviet Union and other countries, as well as progress towards peace in the Middle East
. Both problems started to put into practice. Repatriation has increased, but progress toward peace gained momentum on October 30, where he launched the Middle East conference.
Consent Shamir to participate in the peace conference, experts viewed as a positive sign. Since recently, Israeli Prime Minister firmly rejected any idea of the Middle East Forum.
- When I say that direct negotiations require international umbrella, - he said his opponents - I say that is nonsense. Anyone who wants to make peace with a neighbor, will not seek any umbrellas.
. But even accepting an invitation to the Madrid meeting, Shamir, like leaving a path of retreat, constantly repeating that the negotiations 'may face many obstacles may be crises'.
. In this case, however, added:
. - Everyone knows at what position I'm standing ...
. They are, as you know, very tough and quite hard
. Evidence of this decision and Shamir himself to lead the Israeli delegation at the Madrid meeting. It was an obvious allusion to Arab countries not to build illusions and not expect from him any concessions. I will not mention the fact that almost all members of the Israeli delegation were supporters of the prime minister, shares his views in the non-rejection of controlled territories in exchange for peace.
. It should be recalled that since the beginning of the process of peaceful settlement Shamir was in a difficult situation in their own country
. He was subjected to strong pressure on the right - the part of ministers from the religious parties, who rejected negotiations with the Arabs. And the left - from the increasingly strong pacifist movement, advocated a compromise in exchange for peace.
. Despite its venerable age (his term expired in June 1992, when he was 77 years old), Acting Prime Minister Shamir served very faithfully
. We can say - 'burn' at work.
Wake up, usually in the 5-30 in the morning and once included a radio to listen to the latest news. For breakfast, which usually consisted of boiled eggs, sandwiches with cheese, cream, apple and a glass of tea, he looked through the newspaper 'Ha'aretz', 'Davar' and 'Jerusalem Post'. However, his favorite reading matter were intelligence reports and the telegram of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
In 8-00 Shamir came to my office. The working day began with meetings with ministers responsible for economy, foreign affairs and defense. In the last year in office, he devoted much attention to the establishment of new immigrants, without which represented the future of Israel.
Always dined at home - a two-storey mansion in Jerusalem on Balfour Street. Dinner prepared by chefs or wife. According to Shamir, food cooked in a hurry, unworthy of a civilized man. I prefer meat dishes, and could not stand sandwiches.
After lunch and short rest again went to the office. Home back to nine in the evening to watch news program. During dinner consumed yogurt and fruit. Before going to bed drink a cup of tea or mineral water. Before falling asleep, like something to read. Always slept soundly, dreaming. However, in the morning could not remember that dream.
. I think that today, having gone to rest, and becoming an ordinary citizen, pensioner, Shamir did not change his habits much.
. In tracing the life path of the former Israeli prime minister, I tried to find the answer to the question: 'What is the reason for the success of his career is not easy, which surprised her slalom virazhamiN'
. Perhaps the very precise answer Israeli journalist Zeev Bar-Am in the newspaper 'Time'
. Shamir, "he wrote, is a man without nerves devoid of emotion, has a highly developed gift of mimicry. He disappeared, dissolved in the environment and emerging suddenly as a ghost which gained flesh, at the right time and right place. He never sought positions of responsibility did not go to them ahead. Opponents did not notice him, did not understand what the the man. And he suddenly arose due to their spin and finished first. The ability to hide their true intentions and capabilities have always been his greatest strength.
. And another question I sought an answer: 'Why Shamir's intransigence, . his unwillingness to compromise, . his cruelty and, . sometimes, . nepredskazuemostiN 'Maybe, . is it from a daring underground terrorist, . from clever agent 'Mossad' or from the leader of the right partiiN not excluded, . that he did not want, . to be exact - he could not make concessions to another reason, . that it was bleeding open wound tragic fate of the Jewish people,
. Y Shamir, apparently, there is a certain set. He was constantly haunted obsession that the Arabs have not abandoned plans throw the Jews into the sea.
Israeli prime minister, according to his associates, was an ardent devotee of the cult of force. He believed that only through war can achieve freedom. Even opponents of the Shamir admitted that he created from durable material. Not break his. How can sow it, and doubts about his chosen path.
He is still convinced that the struggle waged by Israel, has a permanent character and will last a long time. And the war, according to Shamir, everything is decided by the will of the commander. From this perspective, the model of the underground seems to him ideal for a State in an extreme situation.
As prime minister, he said, according to his subordinates, think in the head of an underground organization. Therefore, critical decisions himself, and then at the meetings of the narrow political cabinet demanded their approval.
. 'Shamir was deprived of Churchill's ambitions and did not dream of being branded as a great statesman, - wrote about him, an Israeli philosopher David Hartman
. - He saw before him one simple task: to preserve the integrity of Israel ... '
At a meeting where Shamir was invited as an honored guest, he was at the end of his speech said, like an incantation:
- You can not give. Can not sell the country. Sooner or later the entire Jewish people to return here. We must remember this ...
In these words the whole Shamir - a well-worn policy. Prudent, controversial, hard, inconvenient. He has been playing by its own rules. All my life ...