Arakcheev Alexei Andreyevich( Graf, reactionary, marred the second half of the reign of Emperor Alexander the Blessed.)
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Biography Arakcheev Alexei Andreyevich
Years of life 4.10.1769 - 3.05.1834.
On graph Lyapunov Arakcheev we know little about and. School programs are always recommended it as a dark reactionary, marred the second half of the reign of Emperor Alexander the Blessed. Pushkinskaya quip about "the whole of Russia oppressors - mad, without feeling, without honor" completed the deal. ArakcheevN Yes, I know, a martinet and a scoundrel. In the end, so it seems, and there. However, this "eventually" uninteresting, far from reflecting all the light and shade of a major historical figure. It's bad there, well there, but harsh and semi-literate artillery general rules Russia instead of the lazy and pampered monarch, not given to difficult and inevitably dirty political actions.
. Under Arakcheyev taken first understand emerged after the War of 1812 the system of military settlements
. There, the age-old burden of agricultural bonded labor multiplied the horrors of military service, the regulation of barrack life. All true. But the military settlements not Arakcheev invented.
Returning from a campaign in Europe, the Emperor Alexander I was sorry victorious warrior: how could a poor soldier, crushed Napoleon, returned to the dark kazarmuN Oh bad. And at the tender imagination monarch appeared clean, rural houses, around which the green grass, walking little white lamb, murmuring brooks and singing birds. Then the soldier and the land popashet, and poems popishet, and - oh, just for variety! - Will fruntovoy another all military training. And very nice to be even - to settle the shelves on the public lands to merge monitored by prosperity from the old-timers, with the state peasants.
. When the chairman of the military department of the State Council General Arakcheev learned that he had to put into practice such utter idyll, he immediately understood: all the nonsense, do not come to the king's word
. Carefully tried to dissuade the emperor - supposedly not be able to plow guy yes to sow's Regulations; soldiers for battle will not be diverted to the arable land, hayfields and cattle yards. But the emperor did not want to part with their dreams, worthy of a landowner Manilov still unwritten "Dead Souls". I had Arakche'ev those dreams embody. And much of that Alexey is taken, it must accurately and unconditionally executed. In the best form. To be ashamed to show the emperor.
Arakcheyev tale will soon not only affects. Visiting the military settlements of the Novgorod province, the emperor saw his dream of personally: neat two-storey houses (model - we'd say today) for two families, excellent roads, nor drunkards, nor idlers. Plowing. Marching. Building a church walk. The king was pleased. Procedure.
But what and how this order is kept: in the Novgorod Arakcheeva Georgian manor and in the surrounding towns of glorious warriors, winners of Bonaparte, as well as their wives and children were whipped for deviating a hair's breadth from the regulations and establish. A strictly instructed all: not only how and when to plow, sow, but even how many and what have pots in the kitchen and where they put. Houses snapped up the street straight to the red line. Looking into one, the following could not attend: exactly the same thing. Each "cottage" had, for example, the window N4, for Kojima in the room was supposed to dwell adolescents "female sex". With the rise and otboe, when shared in the same teenagers dressed and undressed, the curtains on the windows should have a certain number of minutes be drawn.
. The soldier, a farmer inevitably missed a simple filthy hut, where free cockroaches and mice running around, and old men quietly smoked on the mound.
. When the girls behind the windows N4 were in age, they were married
. Before the feast of the Protection or at Christmas, Colonel drove to the parade ground, two systems: the right - grooms, left - the bride. Then, with his own thoughts, pulled pairs. So pop these couples and crowned. Then the newlyweds started a family in hell - the scandals, fights, adultery. Even suicide.
Graf Arakcheev fool was not. He knew that no one forced happiness. But it was not in his official tasks. The main thing - in the military colonies all arranged by the will of the adored monarch.
The famous "Potemkin village" of Catherine's time are not particularly enthusiastic. But they are something really was. Arakcheyev military settlements with their cult of cruel, inhuman order was. There really. And many educated and sophisticated gentlemen, as we would say today, have bought: commented on them in general with praise. And among them, not only such official letters, how Thaddeus Bulgarin or Nicholas Grech, but the poet Derzhavin Decembrist my friend, even the kind of historian Karamzin
Human life is cheap cost. Outraged Arakche'ev Colonel F. Linen suicide more than twenty years before the military settlements. Nothing. It turned out alright. Forgiven.
Arakcheeva took a little outside the royal service. Precision and formal correspondences he learned from his first boss - the Grand Duke, and later Emperor Paul Petrovich. Memoirists tell semi-legendary episode: if Paul I called the son - the heir-the Crown Prince Alexander and officer Arakcheeva, joined their hands and ordered them to be together - friends, brothers. Heir, being eight years younger, played the younger. When Alexander ascended the throne, Arakcheev as if he had to be harsh, but loyal and obedient to the shadow of his murdered father.
. Arakcheev - an epoch of national history.
. His power over Russia was so unequivocal that contemporaries cautiously poshuchivali: No wonder the state emblem of the double-headed eagle - one head symbolizes the Emperor Alexander, and another - Count Alexei A.
. Temporary worker, even in high-ranking officer, used to produced without asking the emperor.
We Arakcheeva, like his predecessor, Ivan the Terrible, is particularly unpleasant feature: craziness. He liked to emphasize their smallness, lack of education: learning, they say, "on the copper coins, in French, saying," do not parler ". One even said that he would be a great man, if I had had at least one third of the mind-Secretary of State Michael Speransky. But in general, educated people do not complain, called them "gogami-Magog and knight parquet. Among them are considered, even the Emperor Alexander, though that his dislike for the emperor carefully concealed. Paul I, in which the Count entered into force, it was closer and clearer.
History of the State Rossiyskogo generous for the paradoxes, the strange convergence. A hundred years before Arakcheeva Novgorod Georgian estate owned by Alexander Danilovich Menshikov, Peter's favorite and I "poluderzhavny lord". Actually, he Arakcheev in its poluderzhavnosti continued the work of Peter and Menshikov - only boring, without their merry festive swing and inspiration. At the Georgian table with Alexei A. vodka guests were served at dinner in the cups, suitable for receiving homeopathic drops.
And married Arakcheev too boring and formally - a girl Natalia Khomutovo, which briefly stood boorish husband. But - to honor the Count - his wife, he drove himself, when he learned that she took bribes from officials of the St. Petersburg Police. Memoirists agree that Arakcheev acted impudently lot, but somehow hard neartistichno. In the end, a seat next to him took the housekeeper Nastassja Minkin, a woman fat, stupid and cruel. After Nastasia slaughtered yard, Arakcheev deciphered her papers and found out that she, too, took bribes. In general, the atmosphere around the graph was not flavorful.
But he wore a mask of grim Arakcheev campaigner, honest and incorruptible. Several times refused the king's awards; not accept the proposed sovereign rank of Field Marshal. But, maybe it was right. Contemporaries remember, . Count as a coward in the battle of Austerlitz, . how to evade participation in hostilities against the Swedes, . as in 1831, suppressed a rebellion of military settlers, Emperor Nicholas I, . and Arakcheev sit on the sidelines, . feared for their skins.,
. At every step, every word count betrayed the nature of an upstart, a man not complain on the merit and ability
. To his illustrious Georgian were two roads. One - the old, broken, on which traveled all who have. And another - a new, parallel, directly to the owner. The overlapping of the public gates and barriers. History, as everybody knows, is repeated. In the Moscow subway, and so far there are two parallel radius Arbat subway. One for the public, and the other person for Stalin. And Alexei Andreyevich, and Stalin still cared about their comfort, their safety. As if they did not share the whole century.
God punished Arakcheeva "son", Michael Shumsky. The origin of it is dark and doubtful. Count girlfriend, Nastasia Minkin, to bind to a lover, staged pregnancy: wore a pillow under her dress. And then bought a soldier's baby, which showed that her baby died. Arakcheev boy loved, even gave him the nobility and the wing-Adjutant rank. Although he knew of the fraud - in the face of global denunciations him nastuchat. But my child was violent, drank and walked and "father" of their revered fool.
Atrs Shumsky outweighed even the power Arakcheeva; 'son' drunk and died in a tavern. Vasily I. Stalin hardly knew that he was repeating exactly the life journey of Mr. Shumsky.
. Need I remind, . that when Arakcheyev always thrived inquisition, . donosyN Sergeant Ivan Sherwood, . who decided to open the existence of secret societies, government (future Decembrists), . the summer of 1825 ran with his denunciation is in Georgian, . to Arakcheyev,
. Earl was kind provocateur and developed with a plan - how to take the main conspirators in the act. It failed because that was just killed a woman and Nastassja Arakcheeva was overcome terrible blues. And were it not for this, then claimed Sherwood, "never would outrage Guard on Dec. 14 at St. Isaac's Square did not happen". If Sherwood rights, it turns out that the personal drama of a powerful, in fact, changed the course of history. Well, it does play ...
Life Arakcheeva again convinces: it is impossible, impossible to make people happy against their will. Here, if anywhere, one of the main lessons of national history.
. When in 1918 the Bolsheviks hung in the center of Moscow's famous slogan "iron hand chasing humanity to happiness", they once again confirmed its apparent intellectual affinity with the unforgettable graph, and its failure to understand the experience of history ...
. ... Arakcheev died in 1834.
. Pushkin, on learning of this, sorry: could not talk with a retired timeservers
. After all, left an entire historical epoch ..