Loris-Melikov, Mikhail( The dictator when reigning monarch)
Comments for Loris-Melikov, Mikhail
Biography Loris-Melikov, Mikhail
(21.10.1825 - 24.12.1888)
"Hardly had time to look around, we think, learn, suddenly - bam! - Go to manage all the state has. I had the power to declare the personal discretion of the highest command. No temporary worker - no Menshikov, nor Arakcheev - never had such comprehensive power ". Exactly - lapidary, but surprisingly accurately - characterized the apogee of his political career Tarielovych Mikhail Loris-Melikov, in a conversation with the famous Russian lawyer and writer Horses
In fact, Earl Melikov was timeservers. He was a dictator when reigning monarch! His real powers in the short but eventful period from February 1880 to April 1881. were extremely. Indeed such was the situation in the country.
Bloody symbol abroad 1870-1880-ies in Russia has become an unprecedented, fatal duel revolutionary organization People's Will "with Alexander II. At the same time followed the assassination of high officials in various cities of the empire. Repression "right" and terror "left" have reached, it seemed, its critical point. The course chosen in this situation, Loris-Melikov, at first glance seem paradoxical. For what may be paradoxical than the application of the epithet "liberal" to the noun "dictator" N
. Golden sword
. By the beginning of his brief but dizzying rise to the heights of power 55-year-old general Melikov was well-known figure, but not paramount in the hierarchy of officialdom of the autocratic system.
. Born in the memorable 1825 g
. in the Armenian-Georgian noble family, the future dictator was educated in the school guard sub-ensigns and cavalry cadets. At 22, he was appointed composed for special assignments Prince Vorontsov - Commander Caucasian individual housing. Since then and over the next 30 years of his life was connected with the Caucasus. He participated in 180 combat operations with the mountaineers and the Turks, distinguished himself in the Caucasus campaign, was promoted to colonel, then a major general, received a golden sword ...
Loris-Melikov and proved himself as a highly efficient administrator. In 1860, Mr.. He became the military chief of southern Dagestan Derbent and the mayor, in 1863. - The chief and chieftain of the Terek Cossack Army. Penetrating the essence of the painful problems of the Caucasus and wishing to mitigate their severity, he tried to social measures to rid the southern borders of the state from the source of internal instability. In this way he made a wise move - has made the elimination of serfdom highland peasants from the Bolsheviks.
Russian-Turkish war of 1877 - 78 years. played an important role in the fate of Mikhail Tarielovych. As commander of a separate case, he directs all military operations theater of the Caucasian War. A successful attack Ardagan brings him the Order of St.. George the 3rd degree; defeat Army Mukhtar Pasha - George 2 nd degree; taking Kars - Order of St.. Vladimir 1 st Class with Swords.
Personal courage was unquestionable property of his nature. Looking ahead, we present one case from the life of the dictator. Once in St. Petersburg, Mikhail Tarielovych almost became a victim of another terrorist attack. First he was rescued from thick fur coat - it got stuck three bullets fired Mlodetsky People's Will. Then everyone decided their own courage and skill. Caucasian blood leaped in combat generals. One bound he rushed to the terrorist, knocked him off his feet and handed her over to the policeman came to the rescue.
. Military Merit Loris-Melikov Emperor said awarding him the title of Count and the appointment of temporary Excellency the Governor of Astrakhan, Samara and Saratov provinces
. The province raging "vetlyanskaya plague, was troubled. Here's the famous graph in addition to controlling the disease cancellation imposed on the subject of emergency measures; which is sometimes worse than the epidemic. The next stage of career Loris-Melikov linked with the appointment to the post of governor-general in Kharkov. This extreme position was introduced at the growing wave of terrorism. A correspondent of a leading British newspaper The Times reported from Russia in July 1879: "The number of arrests significantly less in the district, . under the control of Count Loris-Melikov, . than in areas, . subordinated to the Governors-General of Kiev and Odessa,
. Kharkov governor, apparently, have chosen the only true in the current tense situation the way - bring on the side of government opposition-minded community, and not scare her, putting on a par with the bomber ". English observer accurately identified the essence of the political tactics of the future dictator.
People's Will terrorist, fed "revolutionary impatience" is nearing its climax. Explosion, organized by Stephan Khalturin in the Winter Palace 5 February 1880, only a miracle is not achieved the goal. Dining Room of the Imperial Palace was blown. Explosive shells destroyed the guardhouse, was located beneath. As a result, 19 soldiers of the Finland Regiment were killed, 48 - were injured. Witnesses recalled the events, as the Emperor, who attended the funerals of soldiers killed from the explosion, whisper, looking at ranked coffins: "It seems that we are still at war, there in the trenches of Plevna". However, this time in the position of the besieged was the Tsar himself.
. February 12 was followed by imperial decree on the establishment of the Supreme Administrative Commission for the protection of public order and public safety, emergency powers
. Her head and was appointed Count Loris-Melikov. He had the right to represent the king in all cases, to apply any measures to protect the order throughout the empire and give orders to all state authorities. According to Kony, his candidacy offered the king of the influential liberal official, War Minister Milutin
. On the third day of his reign Loris-Melikov publishes a proclamation "To the residents of the capital", . which expresses the firm intention, . one hand, . not stop before any measures to punish the criminal acts, . disgrace to our society, . on the other - to calm and protect the interests of his right-thinking part ",
. In support of this kind of society dictator looked "as the main force that can contribute to the proper authorities to resume the flow of public life."
. The sincerity of such a "courtesy" dictator public appreciated after two of its shares
. The first of these was offset from the post of Minister of Education known retrograde Count DA. Tolstoy. The next important political move was the elimination ... most of the Supreme Administrative Commission and the hated liberals III for the Immediate Office of His Imperial Majesty's Chancellery. The refusal of the emergency forms of government had, in the opinion of a liberal dictator, calm the public. Count himself after the abolition of the commission headed by the Interior Ministry, which greatly expanded the competence. The new organization "police action" does not shrink the repressive capacity of the autocracy. But note the obvious merit of Michael Tarielovych - he included the State Police (Division III cases were transferred to the Ministry of Internal Affairs) in the ministerial structure. Quite a serious step towards the consolidation of formal legality in a society with traditionally - as a "top" and "bottom" - a muted sense of justice.
. Quite unusual for officialdom routine upper echelons of power and the meeting was the Count in September 1880
. with editors of leading newspapers and magazines in St. Petersburg. For the first time the highest authority in the face of one of the most authoritative of its representatives explained their intentions to press! Loris-Melikov said the Government's willingness to restore the rights of local self-government and judicial bodies - the era's favorite child of the Great Reforms; a senatorial inspections, . to ascertain the needs of the population, allow press, . subject to its well-known rules, . discuss government measures,
. After a month at a meeting of the Press count came into conflict with Valuev, the then Chairman of the Council of Ministers. At issue was a proposal to terminate Melikov administrative proceedings liberal press. Smell of political "thaw".
January 28, 1881 Loris-Melikov, presented a plan for completing the emperor "the great cause of national reform". He persistently tried to persuade the emperor to the need for a representative in the management of the Empire began. Recall that for such "constitutional" thought many dignitaries have paid their posts. But the count was confident in the strength of their positions at court. In that same summer of 1880, when with the help of emergency measures and "pacification" of the liberal public wave of terrorism seemed to be asleep (since February 1880. March 1881. "People's Will" is not met a single attack), Loris-Melikov was awarded the highest mark differences statesman of Russia - the Order of St. Andrew. But perhaps more convincing than the confidence of the emperor to the reformer has manifested itself in the circumstances, highly sensitive, painful and dramatic for most of Alexander II. After a secret second marriage - with Princess Catherine Dolgorukoi - the emperor summoned Count Melikov in Tsarskoe Selo. Reflecting on the tragedy of his situation, experiencing the fate of his wife and children, he said that day Loris-Melikov: "Better to others you know that my life is exposed to constant danger. I may be killed tomorrow. When I will not, do not abandon those so dear to me people. I hope you, Michael Tarielovych. "
On Sunday morning March 1, the Emperor ordered: March 4 meeting to appoint the Council of Ministers for approval Loris-Melikov project. But history has made one of the random zig-zag. The same evening, Alexander II "fell victim to the heinous assassination. His Majesty after the parade back home, when suddenly thrown a bomb was detonated his coach. Emperor left intact, would withdraw from the coach to see what it was. At that moment a second explosion shattered his legs. Emperor in a sleigh able to take to the palace, where he died an hour later ... From escorting the emperor one Cossack killed, five wounded (from a telegram the French ambassador, General Choisy).
. The initial shock of the tragedy in St. Petersburg, soon gave way to a heated debate - whether to remain an autocratic Russia, or continue the planned move to representative government
. Loris-Melikov persistently turned to the heir to the throne with the question of the fate of its project. Alexander hesitated. Conservatives, led by the chief procurator of the Synod Pobedonostsev hard intimidated "clumsy giant" (the so-called behind his successor) "devastating" consequences of such a step. Government policy increasingly was coming "right", and, finally, it was finally decided to seek "order" the usual method of tightening repression. Hope for reform finally collapsed after the Manifesto, April 29, inviolability of autocratic framework, of course, for the "good folk". On the same day, Loris-Melikov resigned. Thus ended the fifteen months from the life of Michael Tarielovych.
But the life and service Melikov go on and on. Continued and political history of the State of Rossiyskogo, however, in the direction of the least desirable for Russia's society.
And what about Michael TarielovichN We see it among the members of the Council of State. Along with the conservative forces, so resonate the current era, there was formed a strong "liberal party" consisting of "former". Former Minister of Education AV. Golovnin, former Minister of Finance AA. Abaza, a former interior minister, Loris-Melikov and many other liberal-minded officials, which the reaction carefully "swept" from the king's entourage. Alexander III disliked the State Council, which was quite natural. Each fresh offensive response to the rule of law, an era of Great Reforms, "Liberal Party, met with opposition. She stubbornly led rearguard action. And participation in the General Loris-Melikov was no accident. Cover the retreat - the bitter lot of courageous people.