Speransky Mikhail Mikhailovich( Associates of Emperor Alexander I in the reform efforts and his closest adviser on a possible reorganization of Russia, Secretary of the State Council)
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Biography Speransky Mikhail Mikhailovich
Rainy night in March 1812. from St. Petersburg to the south-easterly direction, left post tent. There were two passengers: Privy Councilor Michael M. Speranski and superintendent Shipulinsky. Only in court circles know, . that like-minded Emperor Alexander I in reform efforts and his closest adviser on a possible reorganization of Russia, . Secretary of the State Board of imperial command is sent to exile,
. Michael Speransky as a government official more than once had to write autobiography
. For all his pedantry it as subsequently established historians in dating his birthday wrong exactly one year. And it was not surprising. Michael was born on New Year's Eve 1772. the family of a village priest Cherkutino village, which was located in Vladimir Province. Probably, in memory of parents eventually left a birthday, a year a little shifted.
Traditionally, sons of the priest was to continue his father's work. In nine years of age with the help of a relative head of the family, he was arranged to Vladimir diocesan seminary. Here, Michael got into a new world for themselves. Revenue in the seminary was preceded by years of relative independence. His father, Mikhail Vasilyevich was too busy bringing up her son, the mother lay the whole farm. Only communicate with his grandfather Basil allowed him to become literate, learn to read and write. By nature he was a frail, sometimes peers as a child cruelly mocked him. Perhaps this contributed to the fact that since childhood he preferred reading boyish amusements, hobby books, found its continuation in years of study at the seminary.
In the mid 70-ies the XVIII century. the seminary there were orders, which largely reflected the social mores end of the reign of Catherine II. In particular, there, as in other educational institutions, widely used corporal punishment, including beatings with rods guilty. M. Speransky proved to be quite disciplined pupil and a bit was. In 1788, Mr.. Vladimir's Seminary has been merged into one institution with the Suzdal and Pereiaslav. The seat of the new seminary was Suzdal. However, in Suzdal Seminary Speransky long study did not have. The reason was changes that began in the Church Educational System. Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church in the late XVIII century. was concerned about the low level of training of clergy. In many seminaries, according to the Synod, the listeners were not given sufficient knowledge. It was therefore decided to establish on the basis of the Slavonic-Greek-Latin seminary, situated in the Alexander Nevsky Monastery of St. Petersburg, "the main seminary, which in 1797, Mr.. was transformed at the Theological Academy.
Program of the Alexander Nevsky seminary was based on the rationalist and philosophical spirit of the time. It provided an unconditional study of both traditional seminary subjects - theology, metaphysics, rhetoric, and others, as well as secular subjects - mathematics, physics, history, Greek language. Available seminarians was a rich library, which were in the original works of many Western thinkers. By decision of the Synod of the Alexander Nevsky seminary sent the best students of the provincial seminaries from all over Russia. The honor of being enrolled in the main seminary and Michael Speransky.
. Extremely intense training, along with a stern monastic education at the seminary was working out the capacity for prolonged and intense intellectual pursuits
. Regular exercise in essay writing skills are developed strict, logical writing. Reigned in the seminary please the spirit of older and stronger, . enslavement of young and poor formed the fear of the powers that be, . but in the strictest discipline in the seminary were time and opportunity to "sin": drink, . play cards, . just pobuzit,
. Unlike most of his classmates, Michael preferred to spend their free time is not available entertainment, but in reading the books available. This allowed him to become one of the most erudite seminarians.
Graduates of the Alexander Nevsky were to return to the seminary faculty in those seminaries, where they were sent. M. Speransky proposal was made to stay to work in St. Petersburg. In the spring of 1792, Mr.. it has been identified for the post of teacher of mathematics, the main seminary "Russia. The undoubted success of the young teacher, his encyclopedic not gone unnoticed by the leadership of the school. Three months after the start of teaching M. Speransky tasked to conduct courses in physics and eloquence, and later - a course of philosophy. In 1795, Mr.. his salary at such a high load of 275 rubles. It was a small amount, especially for a young man, who lived in the capital.
In 1796, Mr.. life M. Speranskii there have been changes, which largely determined the fate of an ordinary teacher seminary. In search of additional earnings, he settled the personal secretary to Attorney General A. B. Kurakin. Some time Speranski combined teaching with the work of Prince. At the end of December 1796, Mr.. he stops teaching, probably not expecting that he would return to it in other terms, in other circumstances not within the school. Since late 1796, Mr.. Michael Speranski poured into the countless army of Russia's bureaucracy. These changes in his life occurred in the year, when Russia's reign of 42-year-old Paul I.
Researchers at Russia's history in different ways assessed activities of Paul I. Nobles historian H. K. Paul Schilder believed the board "time blind caprice and violence", "a period of delirium and chaos". Quite the opposite assessment of the reign of Paul gave a well-known historian and diplomat, the second half of the XIX century D. D. Milutin, who called the reign of Paul's "time change, which imposed order and control". This estimate is due to the fact that when Paul began reforming the structures of government and change the law on the peasant question. In such a complex and contradictory time, began to take shape bureaucratic career of Mikhail Mikhailovich Speransky.
How did a career in RossiiN Certainly, many lifted up position, and family connections, wealth, or simply the case. But the latter often add and more - hard work and lightness in the performance of official orders, intelligence and talent. However, of all means to make a career most reliable in Russia at all times, was considered patronage. Neither the nobility nor the patronage at Speransky was. In the middle of the XIX century. liberal historian and philosopher B. N. Chicherin wrote: "Let us remember that the recently deceased last statesman, Count Speransky, came out of the lower strata of society and one merit rose to the highest state honors.
Career M. M. Speransky was initially rapid. Three months after its entry into government service, rather, April 5, 1797, Mr.. Forwarder General Prosecution Office of the titular councilor M. M. Speranski receives the rank of Collegiate Assessor. Even nine months later, on Jan. 1, 1798, he became a court counselor. Twenty-half months, September 1, 1799. - Collegiate Councilor. Less than three months after that, as he had state councilor. Happened in December 1799. And in July 1801, Mr.. he gets rank of State Councilor, matching the rank of general. Not many officials of the time, even had titles and patronage, so quickly climbed the ladder.
. Since January 1797, when Speransky was appointed to the office of the procurator-general, in March 1801, when he received a new appointment, Mikhail Mikhailovich replaced by the four chief
. As a rule, the new leader picked for myself and new artists. Moreover, the procurator-general P. X. Obolyaninov, who succeeded A. A. Beklashova, received an order of Emperor Paul I change all the officials in the Office. But after a long conversation with Speransky, who served as head of the Office of the Procurator-General, Obolyaninov managed to convince Paul I make an exception for Speransky. This attitude toward Mikhail Mikhailovich can be attributed to his intelligence, thoroughness, skill in the shortest time to prepare any document under existing laws. These documents are very accurate, conciseness, elegance of style. On the eve of his birthday, December 31, 1800, he was at the request of the procurator-general P. X. Obolyaninova received a zeal for their first award - 2000 acres of land in the province of Saratov and the Order of St. John of Jerusalem.
On the night of 11 to 12 March 1801, Mr.. Paul I was strangled by the conspirators in the Mikhailovsky Castle. On the throne, this is the strangest in the history of the state Rossiyskogo Emperor spent all four years and four months. The death of a single sovereign Russia is not perceived with such misplaced joy and delight as his.
Last months of Paul I, Mikhail Mikhailovich was in a state of mental crisis caused by the personal drama of life. In early September, 1799. died in childbirth of his wife Elizabeth. She, born in distant England, in a poor family drifted to Russia by fate. About two years caring for a young official governess to the family of Count A. P. Shuvalov. Later, recalling his first meeting with Elizabeth Stevens, Speranskii wrote: "It seemed that here the first time in his life felt the impression of beauty. The girl talked to a lady sitting next to her in English, and fascinatingly harmonic voice completed the effect produced on my appearance. One of only a beautiful soul may make such sounds, I thought, and if even a single word I utter a familiar language, this lovely creature, it will be my wife ". They lived in happiness and understanding a little more than a year. This was the first and probably last love of Mikhail Mikhailovich. He never married, having transferred his feelings for his daughter, who escaped during the fateful birth.
The beginning of the reign of Alexander I could not help but feel fine. Attractive, inspired looks of the new emperor, friendliness, simplicity of manners, the tone and content of the speeches, the first steps in the field of state activity - all this fascinated and encouraging. "After a brief and unhappy reign of Paul - wrote in his memoirs A Decembrist. M. Ants - accession to the throne Alexander was greeted with enthusiastic cheers. Never has big aspirations is not assigned to us at the heir to power ". From the beginning, Alexander made it clear to associates, he was not going to his reign beyond mere talk. From his close friends was established Private Committee, pre-assigned for the preparation of the reform of the empire. The committee was composed schooled in advanced Western political ideas of young aristocrats: graph P. A. Stroganov, his cousin H. N. Novosiltsev Count In. P. Kochubey and Prince A. A. Czartoryski. In June 1801, Mr.. Private Committee began its work.
Accession to the throne of the new emperor set in motion the bureaucratic world. Someone will be pensioned off, someone in the province, and even a link, otherwise the same awaited promotions. In March 1801, Mr.. Speranski received a new appointment. He commanded consist Secretary of State for D. P. Troshchinsky, which, in turn, do the work of the Secretary of State under Alexander 1. Thus Michael Speransky appeared in public that is largely determined by state policy. In his post Troshchinsky duty, was presented to the Emperor and edit the reports emanating from his paper. Mikhail, who had a flexible mind, vast knowledge, moreover, had unparalleled in contemporary art of Russia's bureaucrats drafting office market, was bound to make the right hand of his superior. This is what happened: Troshchinsky began to charge Sperdnski drafting manifestos and decrees, which in the early years of the reign of Alexander I, it was a great variety.
Ability Assistant D. P. Troshchinsky attracted the attention of the members of the secret committee. In the summer of 1801, Mr.. V. P. Kochubey Speranskii took in his "team". At this time in the secret committee was working to transform the created by Peter I in the Ministry of Colleges. It was moving well, and the decree of 8 September 1802. in Russia were set up eight ministries: Military, Marine, Foreign Affairs, Justice, Interior, Finance, Commerce, Education. The ministers had entree to the emperor, who claimed their activities. The members of the secret committee had been appointed to prominent positions in the newly formed Ministry of. V. P. Kochubei headed the Ministry of Internal Affairs. He appreciated the ability Speranskii and persuaded Alexander I, that he allowed Mikhail Mikhailovich work under his leadership. In June 1802, at the age of thirty years, Speranskii headed the Ministry of the Interior Department, who were instructed to prepare draft state reform.
. Preparing documents Speranskii substantially corrected the style of their writing, abandoning the style that emerged in the days of Peter I
. I. I. Dmitriev, who led at the time the Ministry of Justice, later recalled that M. M. Speransky was at in. P. Kochubey "the most able and active worker. All the new draft regulations and the daily reports of the Ministry to file. The latter had not only the dignity of novelty, . but also by the methodical arrangement, . very rare and still in our clerks papers, . historical presentation of each of the management, . Art in the syllable may serve as a guide and samples ",
. Indeed Speranski initiated the transformation of the old Russian business language in the new.
In the period from the end of 1802. to 1804 g. from the pen of Speransky out a series of policy notes: "On the Structure of judicial and governmental institutions in Russia, on the indigenous laws of the State", "On the strength of public opinion," "Another thing about freedom and slavery, etc.. In the notes he set out his understanding of possible changes in Rossiyskom state and its methodology.
Overall reform of the socio-political regime in Russia appeared M. M. Speransky lengthy process. A note on the gradual improvement of the public, dated 1802, he wrote: "One of the main rules of Governors must know the time ... Theories are rarely useful in practice. They embrace one part and not calculate friction throughout the system, and then complain about the human race! ". Reflecting on projects of social transformation, . He understood, . that "any change without the need and no apparent benefit is harmful, . because almost all the light in the affairs of state funds for the most part are only means unreliable ", . that "change in time can be brilliant, . but eventually evil will rise by correcting him. ",
. Hours M
. M. Speranskii in the Ministry of Interior, which is attributable to the 1802 - 1807 gg., - Is a relatively quiet period of his life. Mikhail stayed on the sidelines, acting primarily performer, though endowed with the gift of creativity and the ability. Thus, the majority of their political notes he wrote on his own initiative.
The powers he clearly stood out among other performers. In 1804, Mr.. Speransky was granted as a reward for rent in the province of Livonia for 12 years with an annual income of 12,000 rubles. In November 1806. He was awarded the Order of St. Vladimir the 3rd degree. These awards are indicated on the location of Alexander I to the 35-year-old official. It should also be remembered that Speransky was one of the few in the environment of the Emperor who had no title of nobility.
Since 1806. because of deteriorating health in. P. Kochubei was no longer able to personally make reports to the emperor, as was the Minister. He therefore ordered, pursuant to which such reports were instructed to M. M. Speransky. The issues dealt with by the Ministry of Internal Affairs, was extremely broad. It included issues of both domestic and foreign policy. However, Mikhail Mikhailovich honorably discharged their tasks, and was soon spotted by the Emperor and closer to him.
. Not the last role in the rapprochement and emperor Speranskii played Mikhail Mikhailovich attitude to foreign policy of Alexander I
. In 1802 - 1803 he. dramatically worsened relations between Russia and France. This was due to the intensification of French expansion in the Germanic lands and the Mediterranean, which affect the interests of Russia Empire. Also reinforces the personal power of Napoleon, who in May 1804, Mr.. was proclaimed "Emperor of all the French". The gap with France was not only foreign policy act, it was dictated by domestic political considerations and. Much of the goods produced in Russia, sold in the markets of England, who was with France in a state of war.
In April 1805. in St. Petersburg was signed by the Anglo-Russia's Federal Convention, under which Russia and Britain jointly oppose Napoleonic France. A little later, in autumn 1805, formed the third anti-French coalition of Britain, Austria, Russia, Sweden and the Kingdom of Naples. A little later joined by Prussia. December 2, 1805, Mr.. Allied forces attempted to give a decisive battle near the French Austerlitz, which eventually was lost allies with heavy losses. The coalition began to disintegrate
Autumn 1806. created a new coalition - comprising Britain, Prussia, Russia and Sweden. But she has not had time to gather their forces, as lightning strikes, Napoleon defeated the Prussian army, took Berlin and occupied a large part of Prussia. The war gradually approaching the borders of Russia. In June 1807, Mr.. Russian troops suffered another defeat on German soil. This prompted Alexander I to begin negotiations with Napoleon Armistice. The outcome of the negotiations was signed at Tilsit, July 7, 1807, Mr.. peace treaty between Russia and France, who was openly directed against England and untie the hands of Napoleon in the south-eastern Europe. The most severe condition for Russia Peace of Tilsit was its adherence to the declared Napoleon continental blockade the British Isles.
Russian public opinion is seen in the Tilsit agreement humiliation of national dignity. Even supporters of Alexander I, on the secret committee turned away from him. Upset a long and solid trade with Britain, resulting in Russia's merchants and the nobility were forced to bear large losses. Prices in the domestic market rose, the economic situation has deteriorated. The diffusion in Russia's public discontent Tilsit treaty is sustainable. Under these conditions, Alexander I was forced to look for supporters among the nobles and high officials. He found them in the face of the graph H. P. Rumyantsev, appointed in February 1808. as Minister of Foreign Affairs and. A. Arakcheeva, who became in 1808, Mr.. Minister of War, and M. M. Speransky, whose authority among Russia's bureaucracy has been quite high. Swiss diplomat and historian, author of many historical works of A. Vallotton explains the rapid rise Arakcheeva and Speranskii in 1808 - 1810 he. the fact that they were supporters of the Union of Russia and France.
Autumn 1808. meeting of the two emperors of Russia and France, in Erfurt. Among the entourage of Alexander I was, and M. M. Speransky. About his role in the affairs of Russia Napoleon's empire, apparently had sufficient information and assessed the ability of young official. He showed signs Sperdnski emphasis. In conversation with Alexander I, wanting to demonstrate their respect for Mikhail Mikhailovich, Napoleon said, "Would you be, sire, to give up this man on some korolevstvoN". Three years later, this phrase, reaching the environment of the Emperor of Russia, will get in the public mind a different interpretation, and play a role in the fate of Speransky.
. Upon their return from Erfurt, Alexander I appointed Mikhail Mikhailovich companion, m
. e. Deputy, Minister of Justice and advisor to the emperor in public affairs. Since then Speranski closely engaged in preparing reform projects in Russia. The initiative in this case belonged to Alexander I. This confirms and Speransky himself in a letter to the emperor. "At the end of 1808, . - Wrote Mikhail Mikhailovich, . - After various private affairs Your Majesty began to take me a constant subject of higher management, . closely familiarize with the way your thoughts, . delivering my paper, . primarily included to you, . Ignoring and often accompanied with me the whole evening reading various works, . thereunto belonging,
. Of all these exercises, a hundredfold, perhaps, talking and reasoning of your Majesty were to finally make one whole. Hence, there was a plan for general state transformation. "
In 1809, Mr.. M. M. Speranski prepared a note entitled "Introduction to Ulozhenie state laws", in which he outlined a program of broad reforms.
In formulating reform projects in Russia, M. M. Speranski could not apply to the political experience of European states. In his view, this experience shows that Europe is characterized by "the transition from feudal rule the Republican". He wrote that it is difficult to resist this process. "Sovereign power in vain struggled to keep his stress; resistance it only inflamed passions, produced excitement, but did not stop turning point."
. Analyzing the situation in Russia Empire, he wrote: "The same number of accidents is to us the history of our Fatherland"
. And further: "... the present system of government characterized by more than a state of public spirit, and it is time to change it and establish a new order of things". Russia was, in his opinion, one way to Western Europe.
The basis of government of the country Speranski offered to put the principle of separation of powers, dissociate legislative, executive and judicial functions. On the ground, in his opinion, should a county, district and provincial Duma, and in the center - the State Duma. Suffrage supposed to provide all the nobles and people of "middle class", having a certain property qualifications. The courts up to the provincial court also were to be elected, and the composition of the supreme judicial body - the Senate - appointed by the emperor for life from among the representatives elected by provincial thoughts. The Legislature should have been carried out jointly by the Emperor and the State Duma, with the right of initiative to establish laws belong only to the monarch. Duma granted the right to make inquiries about the state needs. Executive power had to belong to the Government. Separation of powers planned to hold consistently - from central agencies to local. However, the proposals outlined M. M. Speransky never fully implemented were not.
Realizing that the success of planned reforms in Russia Empire, will be largely associated with bureaucracy, Speranskii developed projects to improve it. Every day, when confronted with dozens if not hundreds, business papers, he was able to determine the level of training of Russian officers. Himself as one of the most important officials of the state, he perfectly understood the meaning of "bureaucratic army" for future reforms and, therefore, sought to make it a highly organized and efficient.
In early August 1809, Mr.. published Sperdnski Ordinance prepared by the new rules of production in the ranks of the Civil Service. One can only imagine how many enemies appear Mikhail Mikhailovich thanks to one of this decree. Henceforth, the rank of Collegiate Assessor, . previously could obtain superannuation, . was given only to those officials, . who had at the hands of a certificate of successful completion of course in one of Russian universities, or by taking examinations in a special program,
. This program provides for the examination of knowledge of Russian language, one foreign language, natural, Roman, public and criminal law, general and Russian history, public economics, physics, geography and statistics, Russia. Chin collegiate assessor corresponded to 8 th class "Table of Ranks". Starting with this class and higher officials had great benefits and high salaries. In addition, the 8-th rank gave the right of hereditary nobility. It is easy to guess that seeking the rank of Collegiate Assessor was great, but the exams for most applicants, usually middle-aged, it was simply beyond the power. Hatred M. M. Sperdnski covered the bulk of Russia's bureaucracy.
In the spring of that year, dissatisfaction transformations Speransky began to express a certain part of the nobility. This was caused by the Decree of April 3, 1809, . how to change the order, . Introduction In the reign of Catherine II, . according to which the nobles, . not even being on government service, . received the title of gentleman of the bedchamber, or chamberlain, . and therefore certain privileges,
. Henceforth, these titles were to be seen as simple differences, without giving any privileges. Privileges given only to those who carried the public service. The decree was signed by the Emperor, but for anyone it was no secret who was its real author.
. It is clear that these transformations Speranskii aimed at strengthening the state power were met with a hostile part of the nobility and the bureaucracy
. These sentiments increased significantly in connection with a M. M. Sperdnski financial reform. Stopped production of paper money, which led to devaluation of the ruble. In order to replenish the state coffers were increased taxes and duties, set taxes for the nobility.
Negative attitudes towards Speranski exacerbated by the fact that few knew and represented the goals and objectives change. In general, the consciousness of society was not prepared for these changes. Russia's social consciousness has not yet moved out of the fear caused by the Great French Revolution, and the changes that are carried Speransky, representatives of the propertied classes and the classes saw her long-term consequences. The consciousness of the ruling class which emerged during the reign of Catherine II and Paul I, perceived any changes affecting the interests of the nobility, as the prelude of the revolution.
January 1, 1810, Mr.. Alexander established his manifesto for the Council of State. M. M. Speransky received in this body position of Secretary of State. In his charge was held all through the State Council documentation: he prepared the paper to the meetings, prepare reports and statements for submission to the emperor. The shape of an ordinary clerical position, the function of the Secretary of State, in practice, took on critical importance. Within three years - from 1809 th to 1811 th Speranski was the most influential among the Russian dignitaries face, actually the second emperor after the man in the Russia Empire.
. Secretary of state Mikhail Mikhailovich gave the opportunity to keep abreast of important events that took place both in Russia and beyond its borders
. The decision of the majority of issues were directly related to how quickly and what comments and recommendations of the Secretary of State to report the contents of the Emperor. It is very well understood in an environment of Alexander I. Relation to Speranski in the highest circles of the capital's elite was complicated. On the one hand, for devices of different cases to him were forced to request even vysokotitulovannye person. On the other hand, they could not forget about the origin of Speranskii and often in his circle called him "Popovich". Of particular annoyance of the nobility caused a denial of the petition, even if a request is refused because of its illegality. Assessing the situation M. M. Speranskii in the state apparatus of the first quarter of the XIX century., A historian with. M. Seredonin wrote: "Speranski was quite an exceptional phenomenon in our administration ...".
By mid-1811 Mr.. Speranski felt that a secular society started a war against. Insults, ridicule in his address had become a common phenomenon. Surrounded by Alexander I found people who, for one reason or another, were hostile to Speransky. In the course went nostrums mischief - gossip, anonymous letters, accusations of bribery (and who is in Russia did not take vzyatokN) and even treason. In the latter case, Mikhail Mikhailovich reminded of Erfurt and meeting with Napoleon. It is charged with aggravated circumstances Russo-French relations have been particularly difficult.
For some time the Emperor did not openly react to what he talked about Sperdnski. Moreover, the day of his 40 years of Speranski won another award - the Order of Alexander Nevsky. However, the ritual presentation was unusually severe, formal, and for the court, it became clear that the star reformer begins to fade. But few would have predicted that the decline will happen so soon.
Feeling the coldness of Alexander I for his Secretary of State, detractors Speranskii activated. Among them were people who held high positions at court. The most prominent is a Swedish Baron Gustav Armfeldt, chairman of the Committee for Finland, and A. D. Balashov, head of the Ministry of Police. Both had the right to direct reports to the emperor and, by the way, were appointed on the proposal Speransky. They handed to Alexander all the gossip about the state secretary. Yes, and Mikhail sometimes not shy in terms addressed to Alexander I for his inconsistency in public affairs. All that is causing irritation of the emperor, who, according to historian H. K. Schilder, in private conversations promised Speranskii shot.
On Sunday, March 17, 1812, Mr.. messenger from the emperor, not finding Speranskii home, found him on a visit. Mikhail Mikhailovich was handed an order to arrive at 8 o'clock in the Winter Palace. There, and a conversation between the Emperor and the Secretary of State, the contents of which historians can only speculate. A home Speranskii with orders to leave the capital was waiting for the Minister of Police Balashov. Postage tent with police official standing at the gate. Mikhail silently listened to the command of the emperor, only looked at the door of the room where slept twelve-year-daughter, has collected some available at home business papers for Alexander I and wrote a farewell note by his daughter and his mother-out. He could not, and assuming that returns to the capital only nine years later, in March 1821 the second.
Going into exile, Speransky not know what sentence handed down to him in the Winter Palace. This circumstance is complicated and the attitude of local officials in Nizhny Novgorod, and later in Perm, where he was in exile in 1812-1814 he. Different kinds of gossip and speculation from the capital to quickly reach the ears of the inhabitants of the province. Not go unnoticed and Speranskii accusation of treason, especially during the patriotic upsurge caused by the invasion of the French. Perm governor even established in autumn 1812. the house of exile two guards. M. M. Speranski repeatedly appealed to the Emperor and the Minister of Police to clarify its position and protect against insults. These messages have had an impact: with the President were to pay for Sperdnski six thousand rubles a year from the date of expulsion. This paper began with the words: "seated in Perm Privy Councilor Sperdnski ...". One can only imagine the emotional state of Perm governor, received this order: for hundreds of miles in the district equal in rank Mikhail Mikhailovich was. In addition, the order was testimony that the Emperor Speranskii not forget and appreciate. Confirmation was not long to wait, and October 1, 1816, Mr.. M. M. Speransky was returned to public service positions Penza Governor.
Upon arrival at the new location, Mikhail Mikhailovich was warmly welcomed by local officials. According to M. A. Korf, local officials before him, and when it was pathetic, for the most part - starting with their own governors - totally illiterate. Clerks, though, he kept at bay, but this was limited to all ... Secretary to the Governor of the Board suffered from drunkenness, but the secretary of public charity was a passionate gambler and could not make a single paper ... Replace them was there is no one, and because all the governor of any importance was to write himself.
Speranski not had time to prove themselves in this position, m. to. March 1819, Mr.. a new assignment - the Governor-General of Siberia. We felt that was needed Speranski Alexander I. Perhaps the last regrets that alienated him from himself. Indirect confirmation of this was the tip of Mikhail Mikhailovich from Siberia in March 1820
The activities Speranskii in Siberia his biographer M. A. Korf wrote: "If we recall, . that Speranski held in Siberia less than two years that he was at this time properly and manage, . and overhaul, . and collect materials for change, . and write the new institutions, that if Siberia was - in his opinion, and as a general reference - the bottom of this abuse, and that one of the Irkutsk province investigating the case grew to many volumes, and if finally take into consideration, . how long senators, . appointed by there after, . used one audit, . when data is ready, . one can, . sure, . not marvel at the mass of the, . that he managed to make it. ",
. In the summer of 1822, Mr.
. Alexander I approved a project "Institutions for the management of the Siberian province, developed Sperdnski during the governorship in Siberia. This was the last work of Mikhail Mikhailovich, associated with its reform efforts.
In November 1825, Mr.. Alexander I died. His successor, Emperor Nicholas I, that I could not or did not want to use the experience and talent of M. M. Speransky. He was appointed to lead 2-e Branch Immediate Office of His Imperial Majesty, exercising the codification of laws. Under the leadership of Mikhail Mikhailovich were compiled Complete Collection of Laws Russia Empire in 45 volumes. In 1835 - 1837 he. M. M. Speranski was invited to the imperial court - to teach the legal heir to the throne of science - the future Emperor Alexander II.
January 1, 1839, the 56-day anniversary, M. M. Speransky imperial command was granted the Count's dignity. But live Mikhail Mikhailovich noble title was destined to just 41 days. February 11, 1839, Mr.. He died from cold.