Howard Hughes( richest men in the United States 70th, respectively.)
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Biography Howard Hughes
Thirty-odd years ago the richest man in the U.S. was considered a Howard Hughes. Everything that he touched turned to gold: Hughes engaged in aviation and gambling, cinema and weapons, electronics and beer - millions turned into billions, a billionaire considered superhuman.
. A superman was a mystery, which tries to solve all of America
. The journalists and housewives, congressmen and the FBI puzzled over where the owner has disappeared giant state - where he, who ruled his empire, whether he was alive, finally. Life magazine published two hyuzovskih portrait. On the one wearing the handsome young man thirty years - so his Hollywood playboy and pilot records, remember the whole of America. At the time of Hughes was going crazy the whole country - in the late forties, was a popular slogan, "Hughes - for President!" ... In the second picture looked grim overgrown with a thick beard and long hair, the patriarch - the magazine claimed that Hughes now looks that way. Everyone took it for rustic journalistic "duck" - fans who became a folk hero millionaire Superman was easier to believe that that long is dead. But they were wrong.
Hughes was alive - that only he looked far less respectable, both in the magazine: beard was a liquid hair - matted and dirty, besides the richest man in America for several months did not wash. Completely naked, covered in bed sores, and traces of injections, he lay in through dusty, littered with old junk room and tapping on the coffee table desyatisantimetrovymi, twisting down nails. On the table lay a pen and an open notebook: with their help, Howard Hughes defined the policy of his empire, but at the same time the United States.
Hughes dictated his will to the president, and from there yet recoiled in fear would last tramp. It was terrible: he seemed to be decomposed alive - a sharp, tenacious, questioning eyes were full of life ... Fate played him a dirty trick: she gave him what others can only dream of, and then robbed it all - body and face, and character ...
. Behind Howard Hughes was one hundred percent generation of Americans - energetic, always seeking his fortune seekers
. His ancestors arrived in the New World along with the first settlers: great-grandfather in poverty, fermerstvoval great-grandfather, grandfather became a successful lawyer, an uncle made a career in Hollywood, the other was known as a musician. And Hughes' father, Howard Sr., was the most disorderly child in the family: he organized cock fighting, stealing from the stalls of street vendors candy, beat the brothers and the hours tinkering with old clocks and alarm clocks broken. His parents thought he was a little genius: "My son, - said Mrs. Hughes - had never been expelled from school, which would have been worth it."
. Genius has grown, now it began to exclude from the university - first at Harvard, then from a legal
. In 26 years, Howard left home and went to get lucky: I was searching for silver, zinc, lead, toured all of Texas, has registered several inventions and in between times he married Ellen Geno's, a girl of good family. In 1905, Howard Jr. was born (his birth is shrouded in mystery is the same as death, - none of the books there is no birth registration information about Howard Hughes). And in 1908 the family affairs were going well: Hughes Sr. invented the 166 equipped with diamond crowns miracle drill passing through rocks as if through butter (oil nicknamed him "kamneedom). The beginning of the century coincided with the Texas oil boom - soon Howard Sr. was a millionaire.
... Lying in the hotel "Desert Inn" and tapping long fingernails covered with thick dust on the coffee table, his son recalled childhood. Luxurious house in the aristocratic suburb of Houston, the first in the car, servants, expensive private school ... Here Hughes twitched - a school he did not like never. Howard has always been ambitious, but here he had nothing to be proud of: the pathologically timid and shy in class, he stayed in the shadows and not in agreement with other boys. Besides Hughes, Jr. did not like studying, he was overcome by the same passion that his father - the old, useless mechanisms, in which he dug for hours.
From the doorbell Howard rigged a small radio transmitter, a bicycle remade into a moped. A little scallywag had golden hands and an iron will: it takes up the case, it always drove him to the end. Once Hughes caught an old saxophone, and he half tortured and miserable tool, and home - hard, but completely devoid of hearing a child decided to become a jazzman.
. Mrs. Hughes was a beautiful, educated, well bred and very strange woman
. It differed iron self-control and came to the concern of only casually looked into the room cats: Ellen was terrified of animals and the sight of a harmless animal could easily plop into a swoon. But microbes have been a lot worse than cats: they represent a great danger to her beloved child. And Ellen herself watching chair weakly protesting Hughes, every night gave him a laxative, examined his feet, teeth and ears - in the case of any problems, she immediately pulled the little sufferer to a doctor. Unruly schoolchildren and mentally able to beat hurt her dear, meek son and Howard Jr. to communicate only with the four boys tested, harmless, like daffodils. Thoroughly studied Freud, Ellen Hughes learned of the existence of neurosis and began to drive the child to a psychiatrist ... As a result, he received all the phobias, from which my mother tried to save him - the nerve deviations will haunt Hughes until his death.
. He began to listen to how the work of his stomach, kidneys and heart: the slightest tingling Howard plunged into depression and despair
. Soon the illness has become his favorite weapon: filial whining caused such a flood of compassion on the part of Ellen Hughes, what a clever boy took this method to adopt. And, finally, it became painfully shy: Howard avoided people, and for women to shy trembling at the knees.
At 17 he fell in love with 23-year-old actress, the beautiful Eleanor Boardman. According to her, the second such unattractive, shy and tedious youngster at Hollywood parties did not - besides afraid to explain Howard appealed for help to the Pope. Eleanor claimed that Hughes, Sr., tried to slip her his son, promising that in time he will become a very rich man ". All ended well, as it should end: a fiasco and a big disgrace. After that, Hughes was afraid to watch the girls in person - he finally came to believe that a gentleman is not worth a dime.
And then his life has changed, and those to whom Howard shy, began to look for its location. Hughes lost his parents. Ellen went to the hospital for a trifling operation and not regained consciousness after anesthesia. My husband was so struck with grief that he decided to pick up her son from school - he wanted the child was near. They stayed together for long: during business negotiations Hughes Sr. sat up in his chair, clutched his heart, slipped on the edge of the table - and he was gone.
. Contemporaries claimed that the character of the young Hughes was not the slightest hint of a brilliant business insight, boundless opportunism and strength of character that would soon turn it into a cult hero of America
. It was not so: worn maternal affection, Hughes has a small school managed to do business. His parents gave him fruit crates - he left himself only, while the remainder sold to other guys - five cents apiece. Moreover, Howard Jr., distinguished by great courage and love of the hazard: in ten years, he begged his father for a ride on the plane - flight for life remain a passion Hughes.
. Now Howard was free, and he had to prove to the world what it is
. First Hughes took over eigenstate. Heir was nineteen years old, and under applicable state age of majority only in the twenty-one. But Howard has filed a lawsuit to allow him to be an adult, and got his. Then he married a Elle Rayc, one of the richest girls Houston - Ella was not happy with such a groom, but Hughes put pressure on her family. (Bachelor Howard did not suit - instead he made a will.) A few years later they quietly divorced - her husband went to conquer Hollywood, and abandoned the young Mrs. Hughes felt lonely and useless. Howard did not feel - in the Hollywood of the twenties, according to one contemporary, "one ignorant greenhorn and was hoping to easily reach a triumph, not to get virtue, good name and no exploits glorified."
. Hughes invested in film production - and succeeded
. True, his first film was so bad that came out on the screen, but the second brought a certain amount of profit, while the third was wildly popular. It tells about pilots of World: Hughes called it "Hell's Angels," produced by himself and set himself. During filming, he learned to fly and now every day spent in the sky two or three hours - there he felt absolutely happy.
About the novels of Howard Hughes told legends. He flirted with Katharine Hepburn, which showered with jewels, romance connected him with Ginger Rogers, Terry Moore, and Ava Gardner. But he remained until the painfully shy: Hepburn irritated, . that Hughes does not quite know how to behave on a visit and begins furiously wielding a fork, . Only when all the other rising from the table, . - Prince of Hollywood could not have, . If it looked outsiders,
. A friend of that "she was terribly bored," Hepburn has ceased to meet with Hughes.
. Marilyn Monroe was told about it many years later, and she smiled understandingly: Hughes trailing behind her in the late forties, when Marilyn worked as model and tried to break into movies
. Hughes saw her photograph, regaining consciousness in hospital after the accident - he looked Illustrated magazines, and he was struck by the wonderful platinum hair and a magnificent chest. Upon recovering, he called her from the "Companies working tools Hughes, two hours later spoke to her from his airline and the evening call back with the Monroe studio. What he wanted from her, she did not understand. A few days later he invited her to the office, where, blushing and stammering, handed her a form of contract that would link them to the seventy-five years. Conditions were favorable, but he asked the girl not to sign a paper right now: "Take home and carefully examine the. Do not rush. One day does not solve the case. "
After this communication has a virtual character: Hughes not met with Monroe, but always talked to her on the phone, and the poor girl for days did not leave the house, waiting for his call. He phoned her at night, and she fell asleep with a pipe in his hand - Hughes sat for hours listening to her breathing. The next day he phoned from a restaurant, airplane and strip club, posing as fictitious names and changing his voice to Marilyn did not recognize him. Every morning, she received two dozen tea roses once a week Hughes appointed her appointment, and then return phone, saying that he could not come, and the restaurant offers a set of companion. Monroe had already begun to get accustomed to gourmet dining in a girlish society - suddenly Hughes invited her to his estate in Palm Springs.
Dinner by candlelight, verbal lace, cocktail parties, a strong man's hand, reaching for a woman's shoulder. Monroe swallowed nervously and closed her eyes ... Then Hughes got up, went to the airport and flew to the other end of the country. More she had not seen and not heard.
It was a typical novel, Howard Hughes. As a rule, he invited to his office has remarkable bust of a film star and, panting and puffing, the lady explained that her fortune is made - we just have to part with her husband ... This relationship ended - Hughes decided that he had made a bad impression, and very afraid cause ridicule. But the danger, altitude, speed and the creaking of the wooden biplane desperate overload it never scared.
Hughes was desperately courageous test pilot, constantly risking his life and beat all aircraft records. Besides, he was considered full of promise, an aircraft: the released from his own laboratory plane Howard Hughes made the circumnavigation flight. This is known to all - but the heroic image does not fit into a modest, matter-dressed man, do not abandon the most distant corners during social receptions. Reporters puzzled over why he - multimillionaire! - Should have been on probation at the civil airlines and thus carry the luggage of passengers. The fact that he originally was not quite normal, they certainly had no idea.
In this and in fact it was hard to believe - because Hughes was a brilliant entrepreneur. He put his money in anything that pays income: became master of the largest beer company, bought out the Kennedy of his production company, acquired the aircraft repair plant. He bought the old, crippled during the Second World bombers and transport planes, Lata and marketed their civil airlines, its factories produced super-modern weapons, radars and electronics.
. He managed to rise from the dead: in 1947, millionaire fell to the ground with a light air race (he invented it himself felt), . but then lucky Hughes scrambled, . but to hide his disfiguring scar, . he let his mustache, . that it is going ..,
. About how this strange, uncertain and closed with a creature known only to close friends of Howard Hughes, but a woman, for whom he had courted.
. Hughes moved to relations with others the same scheme, which his deceased parents: it is boundless confidence in one or two closest aides, and all other parties
. The idea that his life will become a woman who will know everything about him and become his alter ego, pressed his boundless. Hughes and stretched to the beauties around him, and was afraid to take the last, crucial step. Novels by his frightened - he preferred to pay.
Prostitutes did not have to talk, they did not have to conquer: the girls were doing their job and did not ask for anything except money. Instead, they rewarded him with syphilis: the disease did not have a clear clinical picture, and manifested itself only in the second half of life. By this time, Hughes was already a completely different person - say, the reason for this was the untreated venereal disease, affecting his mind.
. What happened to him before he put himself in "solitary confinement", we know from the words of the second wife of a billionaire, the actress Jean Peters
. (He married her when he was 51 year: Hughes suspected that the ill-wishers gather information about his mental instability, and legal marriage was to testify about the sane). After the wedding, Hughes every night took her to the cinema, where films were shown only for the two of them. But then Howard learned that in the same room, daily fresh series of scrolling black series for the black film crew. More it in the cinema did not appear. Having heard that the actress, with whom he had met several years ago, fell ill with venereal disease, Hughes sent to the fire all his clothes, from ties to his shorts, but at the same time and home mats. When a friend of Jin was caught the liver, Hughes immediately sent his wife in quarantine: microbes and negros scared of his equally. (As a child, Hughes witnessed the uprising of black soldiers had killed 16 whites.) Moreover, it has become horribly incontinent: weeks did not change clothes, and when she dumped him, strolled around the house naked. Hughes maintained delicious business acumen, but his eccentricities kept increasing - he privatized the toilet in his office, and staff advised to use milk packets. Psychosis has developed rapidly: the surrounding implicitly performed the most absurd desire to Howard Hughes, with his fears agree, his phobia is encouraged - a world in which he lived, becoming more surreal. Over time, they stopped sleeping together Gin - syphilis, which Hughes did not suspect killed it man ... And one fine day he disappeared.
Before that, Hughes has experienced serious internal crisis. The secret of his success was that he always put the right people and if necessary, squeezed out of them all juices. Hughes Aircraft, led by Charles Thomas, a former marine minister of the United States; worked with him former colleagues the Minister of War Robert McNamara ... Hughes tightly controlled each of them: he trusted only to his closest collaborator, Charles Thornton. This man and gave him. In the mid-fifties it became clear that all these years, Thornton deftly robbing his master: to collect more money, he bought a small company, Litton Industries, and turned it into a huge concern. (In the sixties the assets of the corporation exceed $ 750 million)
. Disappointed with the people slowly went mad Hughes broke with the past life and went through a classic first settlers - the West, to the Mexican border, the more undeveloped land by big business
. Shortly before he sold his airline, and in the wallet from him lay a check for half a billion dollars. With that money, Howard Hughes arrived in Las Vegas, entered the room, which was to be his camera and the heart of his empire, closed the door and picked up a sheet of paper and a pen and lay on the bed. So he broke off all ties between themselves and the world and started the biggest game of his life.
Howard began buying Texas and Nevada - and all that he acquired, brought him new money. Hughes bought fifteen hotels and most Las Vegas casinos, . airfield, . abandoned gold and silver mines, . golf courses, . television station, . huge ranch Krupp, . maintenance facilities, . Governor of the state and local prosecutor Lassalta,
. His new manager, Robert Maheu, a former private detective and a CIA agent, his business know - half that Hughes brought to Las Vegas, soon increased six-fold. But this was only the beginning - really going to buy Hughes, United States. To acquire the entire country was not entirely necessary - the president had to do much more cheaply.
. Jean Peters talked about the passion Hughes to control everything and everyone: when she went to a cafe, he sent along with her guards, threw open the door, pulls a chair to the table and wipe plates with disposable wipes
. Now, Hughes wanted to take care of the country: there were no blacks on television, . no nuclear tests (they were conducted in Nevada, . Hughes and the room from them swinging chandelier) and the most favored for "Companies working tools Hughes, . acting without regard for the laws,
. Republican candidate Richard Nixon took the Hughes' half-million dollars - and became president.
. Hughes, meanwhile three years did not go outside, it served several Mormons, selected them for their diligence, honesty and physical purity, and with the faithful, Robert Maheu, he communicated through zapisochek
. Howard Hughes did not read the stock ticker, do not follow the market: his consciousness faded, and he spent hours going through his long, dirty, matted hair. But the ideas that led him to the west of the country, continued to work, and a brilliant business insight he has not changed, on the outskirts of the USA, giant industrial empire. In Hughes was an extraordinary flair for all things new: he first realized that the rate should be done on a thin electronics, missiles, satellites, equipment for nuclear reactors. He guessed that the production is better to move in the future, not spoiled by the attention of big business backwater, where taxes are lower, more manageable power, and labor is cheaper. This bore fruit: in just a few years of Howard Hughes was one of the most influential people in the country.
American politicians, he inspired awe. Richard Nixon (who was also a paranoid) dreamed lurking in Las Vegas, octopus - a man without age and the person collecting dirt on the President of the United States. But the temptation was strong - Nixon continues to take money from the powerful billionaire and puzzled over the fact that Hughes will require replacement and that he would do with his debtor, if he will not be able to please him. The FBI reported to Nixon, that Howard Hughes - "a ruthless, unscrupulous man, crazy paranoid, capable of killing". (This information is provided employee, whom Maheu was fired for stealing, - Hughes would not kill a fly). But the president took memo seriously. Zaryvshiysya in the dust and debris Hughes at this time shivering with seven bars of horror - he too was scared.
. He did not know what to fear and why he needs President Nixon - from the horse phobia doses of codeine Howard Hughes increased in geometric progression
. After the disaster in 1947 he stabbed morphine, who rented unbearable pain from injuries. He survived, and was replaced by morphine codeine. Hughes got used to the drug and the dose taken each day, which is considered lethal medicine. Every year the number of injections increased, and Hughes has gone to his own, surreal, ill coincide with the real world. He ceased to understand life, . she is more frightened him, . Hughes and required numerous security and washed clean Mormons, . entered his room in the white rubber gloves, . needed a shrewd and grasping manager Maheu and his own, . made his money, President Nixon ..,
. But he also feared them.
. Maheu could bring him as betraying Thornton, and Nixon did not fulfill its obligations: he promised to stop nuclear tests, and a day back in the room chandelier was swaying back and the head of poor old man poured plaster ..
. In addition to your game play and met hyuzovskaya attendants: common sense reasoning, good people have decided that the billionaire's better to stay near them alone.
. Hughes long could not without them: in his wake Mormon 10.15, . which is eight times pinching the billionaire for his left leg, . seizing his dirty fingers four sterile towels; Mormons, three times a year, changed his clothes, . five times a year and washed once in six months perestilali bed,
. When Hughes cold, and he poured the blood clean Mormon, and he immediately went to the amendment - who else was veritN And Howard Hughes had fled from their imaginary enemies and clear to the Bahamas - the Mormons brought it out of the hotel on their hands. This was followed by a grand stir in California and Texas, a serious redistribution of influence in business and global changes in the political life of the country.
Hughes began to plead with Robert Maheu. He did not want to let go of his empire and claimed that the billionaire kidnapped racketeers. Purchased at the root of the Hughes Corporation and the governor of the state's attorney could not understand what actually happens. But Richard Nixon was well sorted out the what's happening: the damned paranoid finally decided to bring the president schetets so moved there, where before it would be impossible to reach - the Mormons moved Hughes to Nicaragua and then to Mexico. Nixon realized that the enemy away from the coming retribution, and decided to act.
First it was necessary to silence those who could use the exposure Hughes in their interests. Larry 0'Brayen, chairman of the Democratic Party, also took money from him - and also knew something about Nixon's relationship with Hughes. Brian was very dangerous - and in his office found "bug", and is often stored in a vault photographed documents. Specific results to no avail, and decided to repeat the search, but the attackers seized the local police. 0'Brayena The office was in the hotel "Watergate" - under this name Nixon impeachment, and went down in history.
Analysts secret services puzzled over why all this gave Hughes. He himself learned about the "Watergate case" a year of the accident reached him the newspaper and was terribly surprised at the role he ascribed to it. By this time Hughes was seventy: he lost the lawsuit, Robert Maheu, and almost lost control of his empire - from the negligence of new managers with its accounts disappeared hundreds of millions of dollars. Hughes, completely exhausted, his speech was unintelligible, weak mind. Entourage tightly controlled all his actions - he was now their prisoner He died on Monday 5 April 1976 on the way to the hospital - told all the newspapers, but none of those who knew Hughes did not say a good word. Jean Peters, who divorced him in 1971, left: "I'm sorry," Robert Maheu raised his eyebrows, Richard Nixon contentedly rubbed his hands ... A hotel manager "Desert Inn" a sigh of relief at last in the former Hughes' room will be to clean. In the trash sent to all the accumulated junk in it among which were the ancient albums with newspaper clippings - the old man ever read them all these years. On the yellowed photographs adorned thirty Howard Hughes, a handsome looking man with a neat parting in thick black hair - two meters groomed and trained men of flesh and the famous white teeth smile.
. Hughes in the plane, Hughes with Ava Gardner and Katharine Hepburn Hughes at the gates of his villa in Palm Beach, Hughes on the tennis court and in the saddle
. Favored of fate, a demigod, handsome prince of Wall Street ... The man, who was given everything.
After Hughes left a tremendous legacy. "Baker Hughes Incorporated" is engaged in oil, "Hughes Space and Communications" - communication systems, "Raytheon Systems Company" makes weapons and is considered one of the world leaders in the production of tactical missiles. "Hughes Electronics" specializes in electronics, "Hughes Aircraft" almost ten years held the championship in the development of high technologies for the aircraft ... And besides this, he owned the gold and silver mines, hotels, casinos, airports, television stations and thirty-five thousand acres of land in the south of the U.S.
. Money got around clan Hughes, twenty-two distant relatives of the deceased him - nothing remarkable teachers, employees and small traders
. All that is not repaid, Hughes sold, got rid of what they could not cope (with the company retained the name of the founder), and flourish, avoiding the notoriety. Traditional clan Hughes has not changed: twenty-two successor to keep their secrets better than the brilliant, crazy and unfortunate Howard Jr..