Francis Galton( English scholar)
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Biography Francis Galton
Now everyone knows that the fingerprint can reveal the crime. But it was not always. At the end of the last century before the detectives were only sketch, traces of hair, ashes, and in the best case, the deductive method. Fingerprint become the police force in 1900, after it was proven: the human finger prints exactly identify the identity. This is a remarkable discovery by the English explorer Francis Galton.
From 6 August to 9 November 1888 in London was committed several heinous murders, which deprived Londoners rest. Unknown offender acted in areas Uaytchepl, Spaytfid and Stepni, going out to hunt at night - all the killings were carried out between 23.00 and 4.00. The victims were prostitutes. For the cruelty of the killer dubbed Jack the Ripper. Crimes stopped as suddenly as it began, and remained unsolved.
. Alarmed not only the ordinary Londoners, deeply concerned, and in Scotland Yard - Metropolitan Police's residence, located in the complex of buildings with pointed gables and towers at the corners, towering on the River Thames
. Previously the Scottish king stayed here when visiting London. Hence the name of the English Criminal Police - Scotland Yard ( "Scottish Yard").
Scotland Yard is engaged in compiling lists of recidivists who, according to police, could commit these crimes. Descriptions of the exterior of the suspects were very superficial. Distinguishing features are rare. And they were about these: "a tattoo on his left ring finger". Find a person on it was impossible to accept this: in those times such a tattoo was very common. In the release from Scotland Yard, there were approximately 115 thousand. Photos. Department staff supervision criminals for many days rummaging in the files to find the right card. No better case and the identification of prisons. Three times a week, 30 officers in prison Holloway spent the identification of prisoners. During one visit to the prison, they have identified an average of about four. Each identification took 90 working hours, and subsequently identification were often incorrect. And the real criminals remain at large. This situation has been all over Europe. French police suffocating under the weight of thousands of unsolved cases. This was also the case in Germany and Italy.
It was in those days, when hovered over London the shadow of the bloody maniac, Sir Francis Galton in his laboratory studied thousands of fingerprints. He was on the threshold of great discovery, thanks to which his name forever entered the history of criminology
Francis Galton was born in 1822 into a wealthy family. He was the youngest of seven children. His father, Samuel Galton, was a successful banker, mother, Francie, - daughter of a famous physician, philosopher and poet Erasmus Darwin. As a child, Francis spent much time in his father's chemistry lab - that constantly experimented, strongly smacks of alchemical experiments.
. As a teenager, Francis talked a lot with his famous relatives of Darwin - with his grandfather, Dr. Erasmus Darwin, and his uncle, Robert Darwin
. They took up the formation of the young Galton. Parents Francis had no doubt that their son will become well-known doctor, a worthy successor of family traditions. So, after graduating from school in 1838, Francis went to the main hospital in Birmingham - probation for further study. A year later he studied medicine at the department of King's College, and in 1840 he was transferred to Trinity College in Cambridge. It was then that Francis began to understand that medicine is unlikely to be cause of his life. He plunged into mathematics.
True, at first, this science was causing 18-year-old boy panic, because he knew it much worse than its peers. But Francis, being a very proud, for three years so successful in this discipline, that his articles were published in the British mathematical journals. He worked furiously, slept 3-4 hours a day, constantly expanding its classes - mathematics were added to the anthropology, biology, history, racial genetics. After his father's death in 1844, Francis is fully immersed in the study of the issues of inheritance, the causes of disease and death as a result became the founder of eugenics, making up hugely, not only science, but the term itself. Together with his cousin, Charles Darwin, Galton diligently searching for scientific recipe for immortality.
. Suddenly, his interest turned to the public sphere.
. Several years later, Francis Galton was already widely known in Europe as a powerful and respectable public advocate, defender of racial minorities
. In Australia, it was highly respected for the fact that he acted in defense of the civil rights of indigenous. Galton was a passionate speaker, a tireless traveler, a discoverer of the land, people, science, lover of paradoxes. He began to develop the theory of the evolution of his legendary cousin, arguing that it is totally contrary to the theory of divine origin of the world. So materialists, sweetly rubbing his hands and cried, "God does not exist", have been greatly saddened to hear some stellar reporting by Francis, convincingly proved theosophic roots of the theory of his cousin. Besides, what he did and said Galton, was attracted worldwide attention. Francis Galton was the first person to offer scientific proof of the existence of God. He was lifted up on a pedestal as the church, and scientists of Great Britain. And then this man came up with fingerprints.
At the London International Exhibition in 1884 was set awfully attractive to the curious public affairs. One of them was a pavilion, in which every visitor for three pence able to measure and assess their physical capabilities.
After paying an entrance fee, the person entered into a long room where the wall stood a table with various instruments and apparatus. Logged met a young man. He measured the growth of the visitor, its weight, arm span, body length to the waist, physical strength, reaction speed, lung capacity, the ability to distinguish colors, tested vision and hearing. Sometimes when you present this important, fairly bald gentleman of about sixty. It was Sir Francis Galton.
. The book is his cousin Charles Darwin's "On the Origin of Species", which is discussed in detail the problems of heredity, Galton led to address the issues of inheritance of physical and mental abilities and characteristics
. Were the scientists need statistical data on many generations of different families. Year after year, he collected these data. For more extensive material and was created an entertainment pavilion at the international exhibition. Obtained information received in the archives of the Galton. The scientist was very pleased with the results of research and, when the exhibition closed in 1885, was not reassured until he opened the famous London museum in South Kensington permanent laboratory, where they continued to be measuring. It was in this laboratory and was subsequently opened fingerprinting.
In 1888, European newspapers spread through sensational news: the chief of the Paris police service identification appointed Alphonse Bertillon. The one that served as a clerk accounting department SyurteN can not be! That he. Within a few years Bertillon developed a system of registration cards with the characteristics of criminals, which in a few minutes it was possible to determine whether there were on file information about the interests of the police man. In early January 1883 Bertillon Card Index consists of 500 cards in mid-January 1883 - 1000, in early February - about 1600. Employees of the Paris police began to use Bertillon method, dubbed it bertilonazhem. The registration system functioned. And bertilonazh, despite the skepticism of his police chiefs, gradually began to spread across Europe. By 1887 the name of Bertillon was known in every police station.
Royal Society Royal Institution interested in the method of Bertillon. It appealed to Francis Galton, to explore this issue and make a presentation at one of the famous "Friday" of the Royal Scientific Society. Galton accepted the invitation and immediately went to Paris to get information from the Bertillon. Then he reported: "I met with Mr. Bertillon during my brief stay in Paris and got acquainted with its system. Nothing can surpass the thoroughness with which his assistants produce Cheating criminals. Their techniques quickly and accurately. Everything is well organized ... "But Galton was not limited to one message on the opening Bertillon. Since I had to address the issue of identification, he decided to do it thoroughly. Prior to the report, which Galton made 25 May 1888, he had not had time to carefully work out a new idea. But during his speech he mentioned that, apart Bertillon system, there is another way of identification - using fingerprints, in that nobody has paid any attention. Immediately after the report Galton began to work. He wondered whether the fingerprints do not change throughout life.
. Galton recalled that one of his friends, police Herschel, the past 30 years collecting the fingerprints of different people, anything without referring
. Galton immersed in the study of this collection, began to draw up their own. Hours with a magnifying glass in hand, he examined the prints and made notes in a notebook. On his orders, fingerprints taken from everyone, even visitors to the museum laboratory South Kensington.
Soon Galton was convinced that the papillary lines form four basic types of drawings, from which all other drawings. Very often met triangle formed papillary lines and are on the print or on the left or right. Other prints had two or more triangles. And there were altogether without triangles. One of compatriots Galton, using his statistics, has calculated that if we take 20 specific points of the 10 fingers, identical fingerprints can meet only once every 4 660 377 centuries.
. Mathematical calculation of the probability of matching fingerprints made Galton showed that the fingerprint of one person may not be identical to the fingerprint of another for 1:4
. If we take the 10 prints of fingers, you got an incredible number of options -1:64 billion. Galton believed that the Earth's population is 16 billion, and this meant that the match fingerprints of two people is impossible. But he proceeded from the fact that compared each finger individually. If we compare two fingers of each of the two persons, the 64 billion. must raise to the square. With three fingers - a cube. And if you compare all 10 fingers (as is usually the case), then the number of options will be 6410 п+п¦я-п¦. Subsequently, Galton developed a complex formula to identify fingerprint. We took into account the smallest details of the angle of inclination of papillary lines, the coefficients of its curvature, the shape of a triangle, which are lines. Forensic use these formulas and to this day.
Opening bombshell. In 1892, Galton published a book in London, "Finger prints", which outlined the results of their research. All European newspapers ran a photograph on the front page.
For Scotland Yard method Galton was saving straw. System of registration of fingerprints Francis Galton in a few months gave the result: was uncovered hundreds "visyakov.
It was a real sensation of the late XIX century. Fingerprint for several years, conquered Europe, America, and later - Japan, Russia, Asia. In 1895, fingerprinting has been adopted by Scotland Yard, . and in 1900 in England, ceased to apply bertilonazh, . and identification of criminals was based only on the fingerprint method Galton, . which became the official method by Scotland Yard.,
. The beginning of XX century, Galton, tired of fingerprinting, forensic left and then returned to his genetics and anthropology.
. In 1909 he contracted tuberculosis
. All illness Francis Galton published his work on the immortality of the metaphysical and the inheritance of the genes of genius. But scientists did not have time to translate his theory of immortality. January 17, 1911 he died