Ayatollah Khomeini (Ruhollah al-Musawi al-Khomeini)( Priest)
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Biography Ayatollah Khomeini (Ruhollah al-Musawi al-Khomeini)
Ruhollah al-Musawi al-Khomeini left his heirs a rosary and a prayer rug, and his followers - a goal that he could never achieve.
Shahid Hassan street on the outskirts of Tehran, was too narrow for the Soviet "ZIL". Therefore, approaching it as much as possible, cumbersome government limousine - chlenovoz "as dubbed it the Russians - gradually slowed down and stopped. From it emerged a member of the Politburo, the Soviet Foreign Minister E. A. Shevardnadze and his assistant to Foreign Ministry. Adjusting the habit odernuv ties and jackets, they gradually began to walk on cobblestones. They had an official meeting with the Iranian spiritual leader Ayatollah Khomeini.
... January 7, 1989 from Tehran to Moscow on a special flight arrived Ayatollah Amoli, personal representative of Khomeini. The next day he had an audience in the Kremlin at M. S. Gorbachev, who in a solemn ceremony handed a personal message from the leader of the Islamic Revolution. And soon it in the opposite direction, from Moscow to Tehran, special flight of Aeroflot's Personal Representative of the Secretary General delivered a return message that ought to pass into the hands of Ayatollah. For this Edward Amvrosevich with an assistant and went to the alley Shahid Hasan, where Khomeini rented for $ 10 a month, a small adobe house.
At the threshold of the Kremlin envoys took off his shoes and walked into a small, twelve feet, the room. The atmosphere in the room was spartan: a low table with little volumes of the Koran and a prayer rope, a couch, a chair, a radio, a prayer rug.
The owner appeared before them in a black turban and robe spacious cleric. He greeted the guests, but did not shake hands - not in the habit. Then motioned Eduardo Amvrosevichu chair. Himself sat on the floor beside the table, crossing his legs in the Eastern. The same thing had to do to Assistant Shevardnadze - the second chair was not. Before the guests put on a cup of tea with two lumps of sugar on the saucer. Khomeini was in no hurry to start talking for a long time gazing into the faces of interviewees. They say he had an uncanny ability to recognize people on the eyes and therefore avoided the calls. In his apartment there were no phone. The strangeness of this was not the only. Life of Ayatollah Khomeini - wrote The New York taymc "- was so vague, so overgrown with myths and rumors that have argued otherwise and did not know who were his ancestors, what is his real name and birth date."
. Fog, myths and rumors swarmed not start from scratch
. It is enough that in Iran were simultaneously run as much three calendar. One of them, Ayatollah was born in 1320, on the other - in the 1281-meters on the third - in 1902. However, the Ayatollah himself, speaking March 20, 1963 at Kuma Azam mosque, let slip: "This year I turn 63 the year". It turns out he was born in 1900 goduN
The name of the same - complete certainty. Newborn christened Ruhollah. Second, the generic name Mousavi passed to him from his father, Mustapha Musavi. Khomeini's name comes from the name of the town of Khomeini in which he was born. So on the passport he - Ruhollah al-Musawi al-Khomeini.
His father and grandfather were scholars, and very influential in the city of Khomeini, Ruhollah so little has been written on the family, too, become a theologian. What he did: in the incomplete 27 years was promoted mudzhtahida, in the late 50-ies became Ayatollah - "divine sign", and in 1961 - Grand Ayatollah.
. However, the theology in the traditional perception - the clergy out of politics - obviously it was not for him
. And Khomeini openly said this: "I swear by Allah that Islam in general - this is politics". "The Prophet of Islam - not tired of repeating it, - rose for the sake of God united in a hostile environment ... The Prophet himself had written four letters to four rulers, the rulers of Iran, Rome, Egypt and Abyssinia. In these four letters, the contents are identical, he invited four rulers to accept Islam and monotheism. This was the first step, which began with attempts to bring the truth of Islam to the entire mipa, to all the empires, and to the peoples of Islam in its true light. "
. The idea of the need to adequately accept the torch passed through all the sermons, reports and speeches, Khomeini
. Personal message from M. S. Gorbachev also was an invitation to the fold of Islam.
Khomeini was ready to spread Islam not only peacefully, but with weapons. Even in 1937 when he went to the pilgrimage to Mecca in the Iraqi city of Najaf, where he became acquainted with the activities of militant organizations "Ikhwan al-muslimin" - "Muslim Brotherhood". Khomeini became friends with its leaders, and decades later, during the Arab-Israeli conflict, without hesitation took the side of al-Fatah and Hamas, militant organizations of the Arabs. They received generous financial-aid from Khomeini, from its endowment fund. Not without the participation of Ayatollah appeared and operate units Hezbollah.
From the earliest days of his political activities Khomeini opposed the royal court. Even in 1925, while Talib-madrassa student, he publicly stated: "Iran is reconciled with itself only with the disappearance of the Pahlavi dynasty". This still does not allow anyone. But Shah Mohammed Reza did not pay attention to the daring act of Taliban, as later, probably bitterly regret.
... Ruhollah Khomeini was a novice teacher Madrasa in Qom, where there granted Mohammad Reza and his wife. It so happened that SHAHINYA entered the mosque with his head uncovered. Who took the royal couple to Ayatollah Bafq quite abruptly pulled it and immediately received from the Shah lash across the face. There was a deathly silence. And then came the indignant voice of a young teacher, who called his teacher, Ayatollah Bafq rebuff abuser. But that did not have the courage.
... In 1946, a delegation of five mullahs of Qom asked for a meeting with the Shah. Shah wanted to take only one mullah. It turned out to Ruhollah Khomeini. He explained that by entering into the reception of the Shah, he should expect to see the monarch standing and sit only when he was offered the master. However, when Mohammed Reza walked into the reception, Khomeini was already seated and did not even think to stand before the monarch. And this time the Shah silently swallowed pill
Something similar happened when the Shah came to visit to the Grand Ayatollah Boroujerdi - "leader of the Shiites all over the world". Is in the same Ruhollah Khomeini once met the monarch sitting, although "the leader of the Shiites all over the world" when he came up and bowed his head respectfully.
After the Shah left, Khomeini rebuked his host: "We should not have to stand in front of a nonentity". To this the reply: "I must bring you the benefit of the school. Confronting you then.
Khomeini opposed. Fellow citizens saw in Khomeini's not just a priest, a man on whom the grace of God descended. And the evidence that was enough. For devout Muslims filled with special meaning middle name Ruhollah - Mousavi. It shows that Khomeini's pedigree goes back through the holy and immaculate Imam Mousa Kazem himself to the Prophet Muhammad. In other words, Khomeini - a direct descendant of the prophet, Sayyid, and therefore wears a black turban, and the other priests tie the head of a white turban. But most importantly - to the canons of Islam, only the direct descendants of the Prophet, such as Khomeini, the authority to control the Muslims.
Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi and his family were not direct descendants of the Prophet. That is not allowed to prevail over the Muslims. This means that illegally usurped power and therefore must be overthrown. Such was the logic of Khomeini and his co-religionists.
No less a sin of the shah's government before the Muslims believe its openly pro-Western orientation. Shah held a law, . not allow women to wear veils, . encouraged to wear European-style clothing, . banned many religious ceremonies, . adopted several measures to requisition land Shiite clergy and establish control over income clergy, . including donations and inheritance of believers,
. However, the Shah himself and his associates do not deny themselves in luxury.
At the same Khomeini was different. He led a simple, modest, even ascetic life. It can not be called poor. Belonged to him and his brothers land holdings, which employ about 3000 tenant farmers, brought considerable income, but almost all of them went on scholarships to the Taliban - students Khomeini.
. In family life Ruhollah Khomeini was also the image of a pious Muslim
. At age 27 he married the daughter of his ten-year teachers in madrasas. Batool Khanum gave birth to seven children, two of whom died in infancy. The five - two sons and three daughters - educated in the spirit of Muslim customs and traditions.
. I like the Iranians, and that Khomeini showed himself worthy compatriot Saadi and Omar Khayyam - he wrote poetry.
. "Sweetheart, remember that young you do not desire to relieve,
. In old age you will be suitable for it is only to sleep. "
. Poems Khomeini signed alias Hafiz.
. ... The first test of strength took place in October 1962 when the Shah held a bill permitting not only Muslims but also representatives of other faiths be elected to public authorities
. This could elect to take the oath on any holy book, and not only on the Quran. Khomeini took this as a sacrilege, as a mockery of Islam. Shah and the government were sent notes of protest, published a special message to all believers. The next day, markets were closed and most of the enterprises in the country. Shah shook, but did not give. Accusing Khomeini and his followers in ignorance and obscurantism, he ordered to be held in Tehran in January 1963 "parade of emancipated women". The opposition is led by Khomeini, the shah's pre-empted a powerful wave of demonstrations and strikes.
Shah retreated. And Khomeini immediately made a direct appeal to the overthrow of the Shah's regime by force of arms. Ayatollah became too dangerous
. November 4, 1964 at home in Qom, Khomeini stormed the paratroopers, and on the orders of the Shah, Khomeini delivered directly into the capital's airport, and thence to the Air Force transport plane in Iran - to Ankara.
. All of the 14 years spent in exile - to Turkey, Iraq, France - Khomeini led the Islamic revolution in Iran
. And got his. In January 1979 the shah's regime fell. Shah fled Iran, having found refuge in Cairo.
February 1, 1979, Khomeini returned to Tehran from Paris. And on Feb. 11 on National TV and radio, it was announced on the final victory of the Islamic Revolution and the establishment of Islamic rule, . in which the supreme power in the country provides "the highest theological authority, . the lawyer, . an expert on the Koran and all Muslims revered books, . respected by all believers as, . that his opinion was accepted without question ",
. Ayatollah Khomeini became the first spiritual leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI).
... "The entire nation - not superior and subordinate staff of institutions and merchants, religious leaders and students, employers and workers - will all be brothers and equals. It is clear that between them will dominate the brotherhood, there will be conflict over positions, rank, wealth, and t. n. Property of all and each will be sincerely made available to all and everyone "- this was seen Ayatollah-revolutionary character of the new Iran, the country of the victorious Islamic Revolution. Good intentions ...
. The revolution brought the country's economic ruin and political chaos, sectarian struggle for power, and the orgy of terror.
. Throughout any revolutionary committees and tribunals, which do not hesitate to put a wall savakovtsev - employees of the shah's secret police - and army officers involved in the shooting of demonstrators
. But at the same time - officials, businessmen and, of course, intellectuals. These people though, and had no sympathy for the Shah, but did not oppose it. Get and "emancipated women". Those who dared to throw off their veils, were subjected to public humiliation, torture, their beaten to death with stones.
Not seriously agitated the province, inhabited by Azeris, Kurds, Iranian Arabs and other peoples. They are obviously not happy with the ayatollah promised the prospect of a situation where "no Arabs and non-Arabs, Turks and Persians, there is only Islam and the unity on the basis of Islam". Nobody wanted to lose its national identity.
. Almost immediately it became clear that not all political parties and organizations, yesterday united by hatred for the tyranny of the Shah, and not even all of the clergy supported the idea of Islamic government and democracy
. Everyone began to claim for themselves the place under the sun and an outstanding piece of cake powerful.
Of particular concern to the Ayatollah cause endless wrangling because of posts in the administration of the country, squabbles because profitable places. To my surprise, Khomeini found that if not all, many of the "Islamic revolutionaries", including the mullahs, eager to acquire a nice house, nice car and a beautiful wife, and not baked on the orphans and hungry.
. In the top echelons of power of unity and devotion to the ideals of the Islamic Revolution had not thought
. At the beginning of 1980 unfolded the brutal warrior compromising between the candidates for president of IRI. Khomeini's choice fell on 47-year-old Bana Sadr, who with 60-ies was actively involved in the fight against Shah regime. In his Paris apartment exile Khomeini spent his first days in France, together with him returned to Tehran. But, becoming the first President of Iran, Bana Sadr was soon caught in a lack of commitment "line of the Ayatollah" and even in attempts to negate the first achievements of the Islamic Revolution. Ayatollah not tolerate apostates. Bani Sadr has lost the presidential chair, and dressed in women's clothes, flew to Paris.
No luck with the successor of Khomeini and. In 1983, as such, he approved Ayatollah Montazeri. However, April 10, 1989, Khomeini appealed to parliament and the government: "... my religious duty calls to take action to protect the order and Islam, . and so I fired with a bleeding heart, the fruit of my life efforts, . Montazeri, . with Deputy Rahbar (spiritual leader). ",
. Frustration led Khomeini to make a very eloquent postscript to a previously prepared religious and political testament: "During the struggle and revolution, I praised some of, . that hypocrisy and pretense pretended to be followers of Islam,
. But then I realized that they were his cunning deceived me. These praises were made when they represented themselves loyal supporters of the Islamic Republic of. And one should not misconstrue this. On each person must be judged by what it is now. "
... Residence of the spiritual leader of Iran was in the city of Qom, in a poor quarter, an unpretentious one-story cottage. At any time of day is crowded with thousands of Iranians all over the country. From time to time, Khomeini went on the flat roof of his residence, surrounded by people close to him - his son Ahmed, and sometimes grandchildren, and certainly husky named Mullah Tavassoli, fulfilled the role and secretary and bodyguard. The crowd exploded with delight screaming. Khomeini gradually rises to greet his hand, basking in the wide sleeve, then slowly lowered. His handsome face in these moments was a sullen, emotionless. Speeches from the roof, he did not utter. Yes, and that he could say! N After three or four minutes Khomeini came down from the roof into his waiting room - totally empty room. Only one wall was lying on the floor several times a folded white and blue in a checkered blanket. It arranged Ayatollah when receiving visitors.
... "When Khomeini talked with us face to face with him it was possible to argue, and joke - recalls the former Soviet Ambassador to Iran in. M. Vinogradov. - Never noticed that he seeks to please the other person. Was clever, not without a realistic understanding of the events. Sometimes, when he tossed an inaccurate or misleading information. Refute it was not difficult. In such cases, Khomeini listened to the explanations and arguments. But when the conversation occurred differences concerning the ideological views, he is not going to make any concessions. He saw only one way to achieve the goal that he himself had identified.
... Spring of 1980 after a massive heart Khomeini and his family lived in a suburb of Tehran, on the street Shahid Hasan. Ibid, moving two more heart attacks, he died June 3, 1989. His heirs, he left a rosary and a prayer rug, his followers - a goal that he set himself, but which have not been able to achieve.