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Kunitsyn, Aleksandr Petrovich

( Educator)

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Biography Kunitsyn, Aleksandr Petrovich
(1783 - July 1, 1840)
"Fiery Professor"
"Kunitsyn gift of the heart and wine!
He created us, he brought up our fire!
Laid down their cornerstone.
They clean the lamp reins! "
A. Pushkin.
. Pushkin for us to figure, . so far - the historic, . so hallowed by centuries of dust, . "sophisticated - remote it", . that we almost do not perceive Pushkin - a boy, . Pushkin - boy, . who needed mentors, . which once taught, . who answered at the board: "Is it could bytN! - surprised you would ask: Pushkin more than two hundred years has taught us-: wise teaches, . what to say, . yes sometimes on edge pours!,
. Yes, and what he UchitelyaN! Even in times of lyceum himself Zhukovsky pleaded "loser!"
. Stop: Lyceum times
. Here here - it all begins.
. Here is the origins of Pushkin as a person so spiritually free, light - a harmonious, that sometimes it was a cruel and painful for him!
. Lyceum founded on free will and the decree of Emperor Alexander the First in connection with the fact that growing up his younger brothers, Nikolai and Mikhail Pavlovich, and it was necessary to continue them, started home education
. Himself a pupil of the philosopher La Harpe, the Emperor, at the beginning of the reign - (and later, as now proven documented - we will not pursue this historical research.) Was not alien to the free, freedom of ideas.
. Freedom and aristocratic spirit, equality before the law, civic education and patriotism seemed to him a simple play of words
. In any case, I repeat - in the beginning of the reign.
. The will of the vast Imperial Palace (next to him, . as if the wall was a "house", . where she was the Empress Elisabeth Alexyeevna! - a remarkable fact!) with transitions, . back staircase and the wings, . luxurious rooms with special occasions tysyachesvechevymi chandeliers and slippery, . a mirror, . parquet (architectural creation to,
. Rastrelli) was given to the young boys of the nobility, (often highly impoverished) families in blue uniforms with collars of gold embroidery. Were recruited staff of teachers and educators, so strictly and minutely, that sometimes it seemed ridiculous, not only candidates for the post. But such was the order of the Minister of Education, Count Alexei Razumovsky, what can you do!
. After some time, though, it became known that the "royal servants" in the Lyceum to learn not to be resisted-Empress - mother, widow of Paul I, Maria Feodorovna

. Several uzhali estimates, . reduced budget, . but the French white bread with butter, . coffee to snack, . Fruits, . Lyceum doctor, . hospital, . fencing lessons and dance, . Languages, . literature and history, . and most importantly - the study of civic education, . foundations of Roman law and other "moral science" - all left in its place ...,
. 8 - August 9, 1811 at the Imperial Lyceum passed entrance exams, . October 13 was attended by all the pupils, . taken the position of teachers once again presented their certificates, . and October 19, 1811 began life Lyceum, . as a unique phenomenon in the history not only of Russian culture, . References, . and pedagogy, . if you want ...,
. And it began a brilliant opening speech of one of the professors on the act of opening
. So brilliant, . that interested in it even hard of hearing in one ear and obviously bored Emperor, . and nervously fidgeted in his chair experienced courtier, Count Razumovsky, . looking at the "royal guests": What - you obernetsyaN: Will skandalaN: But the scandal was not: even the king warmly praised the speaker - Professor, . touches to the biography which I have now, jot,
. This was Professor Alexander P. Kunitsyn.
. Born in the village of Alexander P. Coy, Kashin district, Tver province, in 1783, the son of a clergyman.
. Birth Adjunct - Professor Tsarskoe Selo Lyceum is not certain yet
. Like several other dates in his life
Initial education he received in the theological school of the same county and in the Tver Seminary. The brilliant achievements in their studies were awarded entry to the Pedagogical Institute in St. - Petersburg in 1803, after completing the course of which, Kunitsyn, as one of the best students were sent to the University of Gottingen - listen to lectures law. His classmates were at the time and Nikolai Ivanovich Turgenev. Independently Alexander Kunitsyn as a course of law and diplomacy at the University of Paris (Sorbonne) and Heidelberg (Germany), and returned home in early 1811, . with a huge store of information, . own thoughts, . young fervor and enthusiasm,
. Following the presentation of Certificate of was confirmed as an associate - Professor "moral sciences". Classes Kunitsyn began even before the official opening of the Lyceum: October 10, 1811, students attended his first lecture.
. New institution in all respects was the new breed of professor, full of hot pursuit of the real education of youth
. When Kunitsyn instructed to pronounce the opening speech - the lecture at the opening, . he prepared it according to all rules of oratory and put her all the fervor of his faith in education and the triumph of free thought, . and if a little - a little careful reading, . then the hatred of tyranny in all its forms!,
. The young Kunitsyn was "clear, resonant and clear voice" (Yves
. Leo. Memoirs.) And his speech could not fail to arouse the attention of students, even though it was only for 11 - 13 years. But then "kids" were a few other. And then in a number of high school pupils were Gorchakov, Delvig, Pushkin, Leo, Kiichelbecker, Matyushkin Yakovlev. Future galaxy ...
. In any case, the spiritual spark from a "clean the lamps was lit it was then:
. In a speech Kunitsyn, for example, stated: "A statesman should know everything that touches the circle of his actions, his vision extends beyond the limits arresting sights of private individuals
. Standing at the foot of the throne, he surveys the state of citizens, and measure their needs and shortcomings, preceded by misfortune, they threaten, or terminate postignuvshie their actions. He tries to penetrate the human heart, in order to wrest the root of the evils that weaken society, never denied he was the national cry, because the voice of the people is the voice of God. By combining private profit with government, he zastavlyayaet everyone to strive for public purpose Citizens willingly followed him with a wave, unaware of his power. "
. Barring some vitevatost syllable, "Yati", "eri", that sounds all too true, not true, chitatelN
. Course lectures cover Kunitsyn twelve cycles: logic, psychology, ethics, natural law, Russian civil law, criminal law, financial and so on
. All of this constituted a kind of unity, . as professor Kunitsyn considered, . that "science is only then has the perfect view, . when all the provisions thereof, constitute an unbroken chain, and one explained quite another. "There were the basics of political economy and an overview of the various social systems, . and even the analysis of defects serfdom! "Castle man - said in one of the lectures Kunitsyn, . - Has no property, . because he does not belong,
. Could not he owns the house in which he lives, livestock, which it contains, clothes he wears, the bread which he eats "
. Central all lectures and classes Kunitsyn was one:
. Man is born free and must obey only the will of the civil laws, and not the will of the tyrant.
. "Citizens are made independent subjects and are above the laws of the sovereign power: but these things do not have citizenship status bondage
. People entering into society, want freedom and prosperity, not of slavery and poverty: and they are the supreme authority, but only on condition that it has elected, and to use means for security and prosperity. "(A. Kunitsyn. Course of lectures "The image of political science")
. So, gradually, everyday work, apparently unsmiling, strictly pedantic, dryish Aleksandr Petrovich shaped inner world of their pupils, who on Feb. 1, 1814 he was drafted full certification
. About Pushkin in her professor categorically stated:
"He is able only to such subjects that require a small voltage, but because the success of its very small, especially on the part of the logic". Interesting, is not it liN
This conclusion is explained not only by the fact that Kunitsyn was very restrained and emotionally - "cool" man with too much biased judgments. Not at all.
P. A. Pletnev talked about Kunitsyn, that he was "in mind, fast and insightful, enriched by a variety of knowledge, the diverse nature of the firm and noble. Easy. Unprompted time the heart was busy teaching vanity: the works, reports, performance appraisal, reviews. By the way, . to refute the views of frequent occurrence, . that the poet nothing understood, . but his poems, . same Pletnev very thinly on Pushkin wrote: "Nature, . but striking talent, . Alexander awarded prodigious memory and insight,
. No reading, no conversation, no one minute of thought is not lost for his entire life. His head, as a repository of diverse treasures, was full of materials for businesses of all kinds. Only with a mind distracted and inattentive, he was teaching from their professors took away more than friends. "
. Too bad all the same, . that Kunitsyn not immediately understood and divined his pupil: Maybe, . happened later, . when the lines of the ode "Liberty", . in the poem "The Village" Aleksandr Petrovich guessed, . saw, . felt a trace of its program of lectures in LitseeN Who knows ...,
. Two years after the end of Pushkin Lyceum AP Kunitsyn and H
. I. Turgenev was conceived to establish a Free Society at the Union of Welfare Dekabristov to publish the journal Rossiyanin XIX century "Save a rough list of alleged members of society - among them the Pushkin.
. With his professor, to which "fed up to the death of his profound and sincere respect" (P
. Pletnev) Pushkin saw a few more times, and 11 January 1835 at a literary evenings H. And Gnedich, where he was invited, and Kunitsyn, the professor gave his work - "History of Pugachev" with the inscription: "Alexander Petrovich Kunitsyn from the Author as a sign of deep respect and gratitude". Those present at the party guests remembered that the teacher and students warmly and spoke at length about something and parted, firmly shaking hands with each other. More to see them not have. On the death of his pupil Kunitsyn always spoke with bitterness that in general it was difficult to expect at his restraint.
. Alexander Petrovich Kunitsyn, in addition to teaching and preparation of the course have also studied and the publication of textbooks on moral and civil science, as the books are not enough
. Often students copied by its own notebooks - summaries. In 1817, . Kunitsyn and educational efforts of the Conference *, . (On the current teachers' council - the author) has issued a handbook, a brief image of the interconnection of public information ", . in 1818 and 1819 came in two volumes: "The right, . natural and the public "which involved all the Lyceum students, . These volumes are not yet deteriorated to neuznavemosti!,
. In 1820, Kunitsyn left the Lyceum, receiving department at St. Petersburg University and chief of the training department in duty Cadets and the Cadet Corps.
. But served a professor at the University of short
. Replaced by bosses at the Ministry, . were student riots in Moscow hostel, . and officials from education, hastened to accuse this Alexander Kunitsyn and his book on the right, . Spread in all educational institutions of Moscow! In 1821 it appeared on an official decision,
. It said:
. "According to accepted as the basis of a false start and removed from them are very harmful teachings, . contrary to the truths of Christianity and tending to the overthrow of all links nepotism and public, . book, even, . as harmful, . everywhere to ban the teaching of it and, moreover, to take steps to stop it.,
. teaching of natural law to initiate such a destructive, what turned out to be in the book Kunitsyn! "
. The entire edition of the manual -1000 copies - was withdrawn from the booksellers, and even private individuals and burned, and the Alexander Petrovich - immediately dismissed from all posts in the Ministry of Education! (For a time he lived private lectures
. Among his listeners were: P. I. Pestel, brothers Mouravievs, A. Poggio, Fedor Glinka - future Decembrists ..)
Alexandr heavily survived being unwanted, detachment from teaching.
But found the strength to work on, inure to the benefit of the Fatherland. For him, it all was not only high style., It was much easier - all his life!
. Sent several petitions to the Sovereign and received permission, . Alexander Petrovich had in 1826 participated in the drafting and printing of a complete set of laws (2 - S and the 3rd book in person he was!) In 30 - x years to bring together all the spiritual legitimation.,
. Finishing this work (to 1836), he became - in 1838 - Chairman of the committee overseeing the printing of the Complete Collection of laws.
. In 1838 he received the same high office of the Director of the Department of spiritual affairs of a foreign religion.
. Hard work, without rest or sleep, has undermined the forces of "fiery professor" as they called him and former students and colleagues in the Department
. July 1, 1840 Alexander Petrovich Kunitsyn not become. Sudden stroke interrupted his 30-th activity. He never had a big family. Only wife. But about it in dictionaries and references silent. The quiet shadow. Buried and mourned the professor his students and friends. Egor Antonovich Engelhardt, director of the Lyceum of the second - has written a letter to the pupil, Admiral Fyodor Matyushkina: "Kunitsyn was able to teach and good teaching." These words, one of the best epitaph to those who considered himself simply - Teacher.


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