Savva Morozov Timofeevich( Russian industrialist and philanthropist)
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Biography Savva Morozov Timofeevich
(3.02.1862 - 26 (13) .05.1905)
"New Russian" sounded offensive. People rumor draws nouveau riche, spiritless-rich autocrats, who, as they do not tuzhsya not jump so far to prosvyaschennogo merchants beginning of the century.
. Legendary Moscow industrialist Savva Morozov Timofeevich struggled to restructure the board to become spiritual, a sensitive, understanding art, able to sacrifice themselves
. In the end, he committed suicide. The story of his life leads to a cheerful in his polemical conclusion: people are earning money, just need to be unspiritual and cynical and have a narrow horizon - otherwise they will become extinct as a class. For the sake of public good as they should be forbidden to visit museums and theaters, and God forbid, they fall in love with actresses.
At the beginning of XX century Moscow merchants were the top two and a half dozen families - seven of them had the surname Morozovs. The most distinguished in this series is the largest cotton manufacturer Timofeevich Savva Morozov.
Exact dimensions Morozov's capital today, one can only guess. T-Mill at St. Nicholas Savva Morozov, son and Co. among the three most profitable industries Russia. One salary Savva Ivanovich (he was only a director and owner of the factory was his mother) was 250 thousand rubles per year. For comparison: the then Minister of Finance Sergei Witte received ten times smaller (and the bulk of the amount of Alexander III to pay extra "indispensable" Witte from his own pocket).
Sawa belonged to a generation of "new" Moscow merchants. Unlike their fathers and grandfathers, ancestors of the family business, the young merchants had an excellent European education, artistic taste, a variety of interests. Spiritual and social issues were of no less problems making money.
. Started the family business his grandfather and namesake Sawa - Sawa peasant household V. Moroz
. Savva Vassiliev's son, was born a serf, but managed to pass all stages of the small producer and become the largest textile manufacturers
. Predprimchivy farmer Vladimir province opened the workshop, manufactured silk lace and ribbons. On a single machine worked himself and he himself went to Moscow on foot, for 100 miles, to sell goods buyers. Gradually, he moved to the woolen and cotton goods. He was lucky. The increase in revenue helped even the war of 1812 and the ruin of Moscow. Once a throned burned several metropolitan factories, was introduced favorable customs tariff, and has begun to recover the cotton industry.
. Over 17 thousand rubles - great for those times money - Sawa received the "free" from the nobles Ryumins, and soon the former serf Morozov was enrolled in the Moscow merchants of the first guild.
. Likewise reached a ripe old age, Savva Vasilievich never overcame the diplomats, but that did not prevent him from excellent to do business
. His sons, he bequeathed four large factories, obedinennye name "Nikolskaya Manufactory". The old man took care to arrange even the descendants of the other world: next to his grave in the cemetery Rogozhskoe Old Believer is a white stone cross with the inscription, . already faded from the time: "And behold the cross supposed to race the first guild merchant Savva Vasil'evich Morozov.,
. Today there is four generations Morozov.
. T-Mill at St. Nicholas Savva Morozov, son and Co. was located in the district of the province of Vladimir Pokrovsky
. Things here until the mid 40-ies of the XIX century tucked himself Savva Vasilievich, and then his youngest son, Timothy.
Clever and resourceful heir set to work rolling up his sleeves. He decided to take control of the entire production cycle: in order not to depend on imports, . He bought land in Central Asia and began to plant cotton there, . upgraded equipment, . replaced the British experts on the young graduates of the Imperial Technical School.,
. In the Moscow business circles Timothy Savich enjoyed enormous prestige
. He first received the honorary title of Manufactures adviser, was elected as the vowel of the Moscow City Duma, Chairman of the Moscow Exchange Committee and the Merchant Bank, a board member of the Kursk railway.
. Unlike his father, Timothy was taught to read and write and, even though the "university is not finished, often quite large sums of money donated to educational institutions and the publishing
. What did not prevent him from being present, as then talkative, "bloodsuckers": wages to their workers, he is constantly reduced, tease their endless fines. And generally considered the severity and rigidity in dealing with subordinates best way to manage.
Orders for manafakture reminded statelet. There was even a police. In the office of the owner no one was allowed to sit beside him - no matter how long lasted reports and meetings. One hundred years later, in the same way entertained the current President Heydar Aliyev Ayzerbaydzhana.
. January 7, 1885 at St. Nicholas factory workers' strike broke out, later described in all the local history books as "Morozov strike"
. It lasted two weeks. Incidentally, this was the first organized action of workers. When judged instigators of unrest, Timothy Morozov summoned witness. The hall was crowded, the atmosphere heated up to the limit. Wrath of the public called not the defendants, and the owner of the factory.
Sawa Timoffevich remembered the court: "In the binoculars it looked like a circus. Shout: "Monster!" Bloodsucker! ". Was surprised parent. I went to the witness seat, flustered, stammered a smooth dance floor - and head on the floor, as if in front of the dock. That in the hall stood scoffing that the chairman had to adjourn the meeting. "
After the trial, Timothy Savich month lay sick with a fever and got out of bed quite a different person - aged, embittered. On the factory and would not hear: "Sell it, and the money - in the bank". And only the iron will of his wife saved from the sale of textiles. Industrial affairs Timofei Morozov refused to flatly: rewrote the property to his wife, as the elder son's opinion, was young and hot.
Family Morozov were Old Believers, and very rich. Mansion in Samotechnaya Lane had a winter greenhouse and a huge garden with arbors and flower gardens.
Future capitalist and free-thinker was educated in a spirit of religious asceticism, in exceptional rigor. In the family chapel served daily svyaschennniki of Rogozhskoy Old Believer community. An extremely pious landlady, Maria Feodorovna, was always surrounded by dependents. Any of caprice was the law for members of the household.
On Saturdays in the house changed underwear. Brothers, the eldest and youngest Sawa Sergei, issued only one clean shirt, which usually get Serioja - Mama's pet. Sawa had to continue wearing the one that took off his brother. More than strange for a wealthy merchant family, but this was not the only freak mistress. Occupying a two-storey mansion in 20 rooms, she did not use electric light, considering it a demonic force. For the same reason, do not read newspapers and magazines, shunned literature, theater, music. Afraid of catching a cold, not washed in the bathtub, preferring to use colognes. And at the same time kept the home in his fist so that they do not dare rypnutsya without her permission.
Nevertheless, changes inevitably intruded into this strong presumption Old Believers' Life. In the Morozov family has been governesses and tutors, children - four sons and four daughters - were taught secular manners, music, foreign languages. Applied to this centuries-tested "forms of education" - for poor progress in studies young merchant shoots mercilessly flogged.
Sawa not extremely obedience. In his own words, still in high school he learned to smoke and do not believe in God. The character he had a father: decisions taken quickly and permanently.
He joined the Physics and Mathematics Faculty of Moscow University. There seriously studied philosophy, attended lectures on the history Kluchevsky. Then he continued his education in England. He studied chemistry at Cambridge, he worked on his thesis and also acquainted with the textile business. In the 1887-meters after the Morozov strike and his father's illness, was forced to return to Russia and adopt a case management. Sawa was then 25 years.
Up until 1918 the manufactory was Nicholas mutual funds now. The main and major shareholder of manufacture was the mother of Savva Maria Feodorovna: she owned 90% of the shares.
In cases of production Sawa could not depend on the mother. In fact, he was co-owner-manager, not the rightful owner. But Savva II "would not have been my parents' son did not inherit it from their indefatigable energy and greater will. About himself saying: "If anyone would be on my way, move on and not blink your eyes."
- I had to sweat - later recalled Sawa Timofeyevich. - Equipment Factory antediluvian, no fuel, and here the competition, the crisis. We had the whole thing in motion to rebuild.
He ordered from England, the latest equipment. My father was totally against - it's expensive, but Sawa broke lagging behind life papa. The old man hated innovations son, but he finally gave up: in manafakture were Omene fines, change prices, build new barracks. Timothy Savvovich stamped on his son kicked and cursed him a socialist.
. - And in the good moments, quite old - stroking me, happened on my head and saying: "Oh, Savvushka, break your neck you.
. But prior to the alarming prophecy was still far.
. Cases in the Association were brilliantly
. Nikolskaya Manufactory ranked third in Russia in profitability. Morozovskij products pushing the British fabrics, even in Persia and China. In the late 1890's the mills employed 13.5 thousand people are annually produced about 440 thousand tons of yarn, nearly two million meters of fabric.
Secretly Maria Feodorovna was proud of his son - God has not deprived him no mind, no master's astute. Although angry when Sawa disposed of first in their own way they like, and only then approach: "Here, they say, mama, allow me to report ..."
In addition to its production victories, Sawa scored one victory in a scandalous love life. In Moscow, he had done a lot of noise, fall in love with the wife of his cousin's nephew Sergei Morozov Vikulovicha - Zinaida. There were rumors that Sergei Vikulovich took her from the weavers at one of the Morozovskij factories. According to another version, it came from a merchant family Zimin, and her father, a merchant Bogorodsk second guild Gregory Zimin, a native of Zueva.
In Russia, divorce is not frowned upon either secular or ecclesiastical authority. And for the Old Believers, to whom belonged to Morozov, it was not just wrong - is unthinkable. Sawa went on a monstrous scandal and disgrace the family - the wedding took place.
Morozov lucky in power, arrogant, intelligent and very ambitious wives. Zinaida G. only confirms this assertion. Clever, but extremely ambitious woman, she teshila vanity way, the most obvious merchant's world: I love drinking in the luxury and worldly success. Husband indulged all her whims.
Newspapers comment in detail pompous opening of the new Morozov's mansion (Spiridonovka, 5 - here today to arrange receptions MFA) which immediately dubbed "the miracle of Moscow". Home unusual style - a combination of Gothic and Moorish elements, welded plastic Nouveau - immediately became the capital attraction.
Individual apartments Zenaida GRIGORIEVNA been luxuriously furnished and eclectically. Bedroom "Empire" from birchwood with bronze, marble walls, furniture, covered with blue damask. Apartments resembled store dishes, the number of Sevres porcelain scared: of porcelain were made even mirror frames, on the dressing table were made of porcelain vases, on the walls and hung on brackets tiny porcelain figurines.
. Cabinet and the master bedroom looked strange here
. From decorations - only brozovaya head of Ivan the Terrible Antokolsky on bookcase. Let these rooms remind bachelor housing.
Generally, Matushkin lessons were not wasted. In relation to his Savva Morozov was very unpretentious, even briefly - the house went to the worn-out shoes on the street could appear in patched shoes. At the peak of his unassuming, Madame Morozov tried to have only a "thing-thing": If the toilets, the most unthinkable, if Spas, the most fashionable and expensive.
It got ridiculous. At the opening of the Nizhniy Novgorod fair Sawa Timofeevich as chairman of Fair Exchange Committee took the imperial family. During the ceremony he commented that the trail of his wife's dress is longer than that of Crowned person.
. Sawa for his wife's case turned a blind eye: the mutual furious passion soon turned into indifference, and then in a perfect alienation
. They lived in the same house, but practically did not communicate. Do not have saved this marriage, even four children.
Grasp, with beguiling eyes and haughty person, from complexes because of its merchants, and the whole hung with pearls, Zinaida G. sparkled in the society and tried to make his home in the fashionable salon. She has "routinely" visited his sister the queen, the wife of the Moscow governor-general of the Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna. Succession came in the evening, balls, receptions ... Special attention it enjoyed AA Reinboth, an officer of the General Staff, a brilliant follower and secular lion.
Later, he received a general's rank in the fight against the revolutionary movement. And two years after the death of Savva Timofeevich married with Zinaida Grigorievna. Presumably, her vanity was satisfied: she became hereditary yard
Waging a strict account of every ruble, Sawa did not skimp on spending thousands for the sake of good, in his opinion, the case. He gave money to the publication of books, donated to the Red Cross, but his main achievement - the financing of the Moscow Art Theater. Only the construction of the theater in Kamergersky Lane Morozov cost of 300 thousand rubles.
In 1898, the Moscow Art Theater staged "Tsar Fyodor Ioanovich" on the play by Alexei Tolstoy. Savva Morozov, accidentally Reaching the evening in the theater, experienced a profound shock and has since become an ardent fan of the theater.
. Morozov, not only generously donated money - he formulated the basic principles of theater: to maintain the status of a public, not to raise ticket prices and play play with the public interest.
. Sawa Timofeyevich was kind and passionate zeal
. No wonder a little afraid of my mother, Maria Feodorovna: "Hot Savvushka!.. carried away by any innovation, with unreliable people will get in touch, God forbid,.
God did not save him from the Moscow Art Theater actress Maria Feodorovna Andreeva, ironically - namesake of his mother.
The wife of a senior official AA Zhelyabuzhsky, Andreyev was not happy in the family. Her husband met another love, but his wife, observing the decorum, lived one house for two children. Maria Feodorovna found solace in the theater - Andreeva was her stage name.
Having frequented the Art Theater, Morozov and became a fan Andrevoy - she was the glory of the most beautiful aktirisy Russian stage. Ensued stormy romance. Morozov admired her rare beauty, admired the talent and rushed to fulfill any desire
A letter from Stanislavsky Andreeva:
"Relations Sawa Timofeevich to you - exclusive ... It is those relationships for which break the life, sacrifices himself ... But you know, to what you sacrilege dohoditeN.. You boast publicly in front of strangers that painfully jealous you Zinaida G. seeking your influence over her husband. You are acting for the sake of vanity, telling the right and left that Sawa Timofeyevich, in your insistence, making a capital ... to save someone ....
I love your mind and views and do not love you akterkoy in life. This akterka - your main enemy. It kills you all the best. You begin to speak the truth, cease to be a good and smart and become a harsh, insensitive, and on the stage and in life ".
Maria Feodorovna trochanter Morozov, as she wanted.
Andreyev was a hysterical woman, prone to adventures and adventure. But the theater was not enough (or rather, she was troubled by the undoubted artistic genius of Olga Knipper-Chekhov), she wanted to political theater. It was connected with the Bolsheviks and extracted money for them. Later the secret service agent determines that Andreev has collected for RSDLP millions of rubles.
"Comrade phenomenon," as Lenin called it, was able to shake down the needs of the revolution, Russia's largest capitalist. Sawa Timofeevich Bolsheviks sacrificed much of his fortune.
With his support published Lenin's "Iskra", the Bolshevik newspaper "New Life" in St. Petersburg and "Struggle" in Moscow. He smuggling typographic fonts, hid in his most valuable "friends", has been a forbidden literature on ... own factory. It is in the office Morozova alert clerk picked up the forgotten master of "Spark" and told "where to". Sawa Timofeevich invited to an interview himself the king's uncle, the governor-general of Moscow, Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich. But his exhortations, very reminiscent of police blackmail, still not reach the goal.
One should not exaggerate the revolutionary Timofeevich Savva Morozov. As Mark wrote Aldanov, Savva subsidizing the Bolsheviks because he is extremely oprotivili people in general, and the people in his circle in particular ". He was the man of European education, repelled by way of Old Believers. Slavophilism and populism seemed to him sentimental. The philosophy of Nietzsche too idealistic, detached from life. But the views of the Social Democrats under the influence of the adored Masha and her future husband, civil Maxim Gorky Sawa perceived sympathetically.
Passionate, infatuated with, nature is all going "to the end", "until the complete destruction seriously". Rogozhin in the novel "The Idiot" by Dostoevsky as if written off with Morozova - or a great writer knew the very type of talented Russian businessman, . bored with their money, . go crazy with surrounding banality and vanity, . and put everything in the end the woman and the love,
Russian rich, as soon as it becomes established, falls into a fatal intellectuals, for it embodies the culture, progress and passion at the same time. And then he dies or, unable to overcome the marginality of its existence, or ... become an intellectual.
Here in America there is no irresolvable contradictions between capital and love. There capitalist, Bill Gates, for example, will never fall in love with a Communist and certainly will not suffer on this occasion.
The tragedy began with the fact that Stanislavsky had quarreled with Nemirovich-Danchenko.
But they quarreled because of the actress Andreeva, who made a scandal because of aartistki Knipper-Chekhov. Brilliant talent Leonardovna Olga Knipper admitted everything.
Andreeva is given minor roles - she demanded the principal, complained Stanislavski and Morozov on Nemirovich-Danchenko. In the end, two co-owner of the theater because they hated each other, that they could not safely talk. Morozov waived his directorship. Together with his close friend Maxim Gorky, and Marya, he started a new theater.
But Andreyev and Gorky love each other. This discovery was a tremendous shock to the Sava.
Actor Alexander Tikhonov told about it this way:
"Nude woman's hand to the shoulder in a white-gloved the ball touched my sleeve.
- Tihonych, dear, put it in a while ... I have nowhere to put ...
Maria Feodorovna Andreeva, very beautiful, in a white low-cut dress, she handed me a manuscript with Gorky's poem "Man". At the end of the deed of gift was made by a postscript - they say that the author of this poem a strong heart, from which she, Andreeva, heels can do for your shoes.
Morozov, who was standing next snatched the manuscript and read the dedication.
- So ... New Year podarokN VlyubilisN
He drew from his pocket frachnyh pants slim gold cigarette case and began to light up a cigarette, but at the wrong end. Vesnuschatye His fingers were shaking.
Normal capitalist (yes, even a father Timothy Savvovich) immediately threw his beloved has transformed. But generational change has already occurred: Sawa Timofeevich lived under the laws of Russian literature, where the suffering of love and indulgence of a bitch and hysterical revered as a virtue. Even after the Andreyev and Gorky began to live together, Morozov all still anxiously concerned about Marie Feodorovna. When it is on tour in Riga, was in the hospital with peretonitom and was on the verge of death, caring for her just Morozov. To her he bequeathed strahovovy policy in the event of his death. After the death Morozova Andreeva received by the insurance 100 thousand rubles.
... It was the beginning of 1905. Revolution raged. At Nikolskaya factory strike broke out. To negotiate with the workers, Morozov asked his mother power of attorney to. But she was perturbed by his desire to negotiate with the workers, flatly refused and she insisted on removing his son from cases. And when he tried to protest, shouted: "I do not want to hear!" I do not go away - will make
Terms of loneliness inevitably shrink. Morozov was left in complete isolation. Talented, intelligent, strong, rich man could not be found, to rely.
Love was impossible and wrong. Secular wife irritated. Friends in his own circle he was not, and indeed among the merchants was incredibly boring. He contemptuously called colleagues "wolf pack". "Flock" answered him fearful aversion. Gradually it is understanding the true relationship to him by "friends": the Bolsheviks saw him just a silly milch cow and shamelessly used his money. The letters "sincere friend" Gorky peeped through a frank account.
Sawa fell into a severe depression. In Moscow and rumors of his madness. Sawa Timofeevich began to avoid people, a lot of time spent in solitude, not wanting anyone to see. His wife, vigilant, to him no one came and confiscated incoming correspondence addressed to him.
. At the insistence of his wife and mother was called a consultation, which diagnosis: severe nervous disorder, manifested in excessive excitement, anxiety, insomnia, seizures depression
. Doctors advised to send a "patient" for treatment abroad.
Accompanied by his wife Sawa Timofeevich went to Cannes. Here, in May 1905, on the Mediterranean coast, in the room "Royale Hotel", 44-year-old cotton magnate shot. Said that there were no signs on the eve of the tragic denouement - Sawa going to the casino and was in good spirits.
Many of the circumstances of the suicide is still not clear. There is a version that the perpetrators of the death Morozova - revolutionaries who began to blackmail his "friend". This explanation has been widely used in pre-revolutionary Moscow, and even got in the memoirs Witte. One way or another, but the decision to withdraw from life was hardly a surprise for Morozov. Shortly before his death, he insured his life for 100 thousand rubles. Insurance policy "to bearer", he gave Maria Andreeva, together with the handwritten letter. According to her, in a letter Savva Timofeevich Requests money to me, because I know one of his desires, and that he was anyone but me, even their relatives can not be trusted ". Much of these funds was transferred to "phenomena" in Fund bolshevistkoy party.
. Most state Morozova walked his wife, who shortly before the revolution, has sold shares of textiles.
. "Restless Sawa did not immediately find peace even after death
. According to the Christian canons of suicide can not be buried in church. Morozovskij clan, using the money and connections, he began to seek permission for the funeral in Russia. Authorities were represented fairly confused and contradictory medical evidence that death was the result of "sudden passion coming", so it can not be regarded as an ordinary suicide. In the end, permission was obtained. The body was brought to Moscow in a sealed metal coffin. At Rogozhskoe cemetery were organized lavish funeral, and then a memorial dinner for 900 guests.
. In the capital for many years went to the legend that the tomb was not Sawa Timofeyevich, and that he was alive and hiding somewhere in the depths of Russia ...
. If at that time appeared anecdote about "the latest Russian" (which, as we know, nothing like razzorivshiesya "new Russian"), the main proof of this would Timofeevich Savva Morozov.
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